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Colonial Cases

1898 BC

THE MINER (Nelson), 1 January 1898


The Body of "Charles Kelly" Found near the City Wharf.

On Tuesday the body of a man was seen floating in the water near the city wharf.  The remains were removed to the morgue where a number of people identified the dead man as Napoleon Boulanger, better known as "Charles Kelly," who was recently working for a Mr. Blanchard at Pilot Bay.

   It was stated that deceased had been drinking hard during Christmas week and was seen last Sunday under the influence of liquor.  As there were no marks or bruises on him, it is supposed that he fell into the lake.  He appears to have been a strong, hearty man of about 35 years of age.  The inquest was to have been held Thursday, but was deferred until next Tuesday so that further evidence can be collected.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 1 January 1898

The body of Napoleon Boulangier was fished out of the lake at the head of the government wharf on Tuesday.  An inquest will be held on Tuesday to ascertain how Boulangier came to his death.


THE MINING REVIEW, 1 January 1898

McNaughton, see THE MINER, 25 December 1897.



The inquest on the body of Napoleon Boulangier will be held tomorrow afternoon at two o'clock, when it is hoped that some witnesses from Pilot Bay will be in attendance to throw some light upon what now appears to be a very suspicious case.


THE MINING REVIEW, 8 January 1898

Napoleon Boulanger @ Charles Kelly.  [See THE MINER, 1 January 1898.]


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 15 January 1898


James Wallace, of Kaslo, a carpenter and wood cutter, aged about 50, died suddenly at the rooms of the Union Club Thursday night.  He was sitting in a chair playing poker, when he was noticed to lurch to one side.  On being attended he was found to be dead.  Doctors Rogers and Hartin were called in and decided that he had probably died of heart disease, and considered no inquest necessary.


THE MINING REVIEW, 15 January 1898

An unknown man was struck by a freight engine near Nelson on Tuesday.  He tried to scramble up the side of the cut he was in when the train approached but was unable to do so and received probably fatal injuries.


MOOSE JAW HERALD TIMES (Saskatchewan), 21 January 1898


Basil Rorison, a brother of H. U. Rorison of this place was killed by a premature explosion while blasting near his home at Loughborough, B.C.  He had been a resident of the mining province for fourteen years.


THE NELSON ECONOMIST, 16 February 1898


A cold-blooded murder was committed at Kuskonook on Sunday night last, and although several persons were present and witnessed the deed none of them appear to have made the slightest effort to hold the murderer, who is still at large. It appears that a man named Dennis Connor, a carpenter by trade, and employed on railway construction under Contractor Brewster, some few miles from Kuskonook, went into town with some friends on Sunday last.  The party visited several of the saloons, and a laborer named Sullivan alias Doyle, endeavored to force his company upon them.  This was resented, with the result that Sullivan became very offensive.  He was remonstrated with by some of the party and apologized for his intrusion, which appears to have been more particularly resented by Connor.  Shortly after eleven o'clock Connor and his friends were in Erickson's hotel, where Connor took a seat.  They were not long there when Sullivan again made his appearance, this time armed with a revolver, and endeavored to pick a quarrel.  He called upon Connor to treat, and the latter refusing to do so, Sullivan said he would make him dig-up.  Connor evidently thought this an empty threat, and without rising from his seat exclaimed "fire away."  No sooner said than done; Sullivan pulled his revolver and fired, the ball taking effect in the heart of his victim and causing death in a few minutes.  Erickson, the proprietor of the house; William Kyle and Thomas Smith witnessed the shooting, and instead of trying to secure Sullivan they quietly let him walk out by a rear door and escape. The alarm was then raised, and Constable Forbes, accompanied by Mr. T. W. Ryan, an ex-mounted policeman, were promptly on the scene.  Ascertaining that the murderer had escaped, Forbes at once mounted a horse and went in pursuit while Ryan held on to the men present until the arrival of Special Constable Miller, and then proceeded to search the town for then murderer, but without the desired result.  Precautions were taken to see that no boats were taken out.  The supposition is that Sullivan took to the hills in the hope of getting over the boundary line.  To accomplish this, he would have to cover some thirty miles of very rough country, so that it is probable that he is seeking refuge in the mountains.

   The murderer was in Nelson last week, and was drinking heavily; he left here to seek employment at railway construction, and only arrived in Kuskonook on Saturday morning.  He is an able young man, as was also his unfortunate victim. The body was brought to Nelson on Monday, and an inquest was held by Coroner Arthur yesterday, which was adjourned pending a post mortem examination.  At the inquest the facts above stated were adduced in evidence.  A reward of $250 was promptly issued by O. G. Dennis, government agent, and as several active officers are now on his tracks it is highly probable that Sullivan will be brought to justice.


THE LEDGE, 17 February 1898


A fatal shooting accident occurred at Summerside, opposite Port Moody, says the Vancouver World, the victim being a young trapper named Richard Fraser.  It seems that early in the morning Fraser crossed the inlet from Port Moody and a woman who lives near the shore says she saw him getting out of the boat and a few seconds later heard the report of a gun.  Fraser was later in the morning found on the wharf with a bullet in his left lung and his right hand badly mangled by a bullet.  In the afternoon he was brought to the city and was conscious when he reached the hospital.  Everything possible was done for him, but it was found that he was fast sinking and later in the evening he died.  His partner, Fred. McGowan, was in the city and gave the particulars to the police.  It is supposed that Fraser's gun went off accidentally while he was getting out of the boat.  He was a native of Scotland.


A prospector named Wynn was probably fatally shot at Eureka camp, Grand Forks, last Wednesday by Dick Frizzel.  Frizzel and Wynn were in a house of ill fame when they got into an altercation and Frizzel drawing his revolver shot Wynn, inflicting a terrible wound.  The wounded man was taken to the hospital at Eureka where his wound was dressed by Dr. Manly.


THE MINER (Nelson), 19 February 1898

The Connors shooting.




The people of the city were startled Thursday morning when it became known that William James, better known as "Billy the Barber," had committed suicide.

   Deceased went to his room, at the residence of George McKague, Greenwood street, about 12 o'clock Wednesday night and went to bed.  During the night Mr. McKague heard him get up and go to the kitchen, but as this was not an unusual occurrence, he paid no attention to it.

   After lighting the fire in the kitchen stove Thursday morning Mr. MaKague found the following note on the table, addressed to W. Nelson, of the Pioneer hotel, and dated Feb. 16:

"This is my last say.  All that belongs to me at Greenwood at present time belongs to you.  I am tired of this way of livi9ng.  Do as you please with me, for there is no one cares, so good bye."

In another note, after enumerating his belongings in the barber shop, he ended up by saying:

"I don't think I want to stay here any longer, I have no one in the worlds that cares for me, nor I for them, so don't waste any stamps in writing."

   Dr. Foster of the hospital was at once notified, but when he arrived deceased must have been dead several hours.

  On Wednesday deceased bought and signed for morphine at the Greenwood drug store, claiming he wanted the drug for a hair mixture.  The vial of morphine sulphate was found in his room with the label scraped off and about half the contents gone.

   Coroner Jakes, who had been absent at Rock Creek, arrived Thursday evening and decided that a post mortem examination and inquest was unnecessary.

   Deceased was born in Greenfield, Ill., and was 43 years of age.  The greater part of his life was spent in Missouri and Nebraska, where he was twice married and has a son and daughter living.  He has been a resident of Greenwood City for about two years, carrying on the business of a barber.  He had been ailing for years, at times suffering great pain, and had frequently said he would end his troubles by suicide.  He had been in the habit of taking morphine to relieve pain and produce sleep.

   The funeral took place at 1:30 Friday and was conducted by members of Court Boundary, No. 3576, I. O. F.


THE MINER (Nelson), 19 February 1898


J. Doyle alias Sullivan Arrested and Committed for Trial - Several saw the Murder.

Since the town of Kuskanook at the head of Kootenay lake, formerly known as Goat River Landing was started a couple of months ago, it has been, what, to use a western phrase, is called a "wide open" town.  Up to last Sunday night however no serious crimes were committed.  On that night a foul murder was committed.

   The steamer Nelson which arrived on Monday evening had on board the dead body of Dennis Connors, who the previous night had been fatally shot by J. Doyle alias J. Sullivan.  The facts of the case as brought out in evidence given at the inquest held on Monday by Coroner Dr. Arthur and a jury composed of J. Bannerman, Thos. Madden, H. Wright, F. Goodwin, S. J., Mighton and J. Hyde, are briefly as follows:

   On Sunday evening a party of men consisting of Dennis Connors, Tom Smith, Wm. Kyle and Alex. Clare from a Crow's Nest Pass railway construction camp were spending the night in the town drinking and visiting the saloons.  During the evening they fell in with Doyle with whom they had several drinks. About 11.30 Connors, Kyle and Clare were sitting in the Alexander hotel, when Doyle came in and called them up to the bar to have a drink.  Connors went up to the bar saying "I'll have a drink with you even if I don't like you." Doyle then said "You can't get the best of me," and walked out without the drinks having been served.  Connors then went back and sat down.  About 15 minutes later Doyle came to the hotel again and on seeing Connors drew a revolver, and walked up to within a few feet of him.  After applying a vile epithet he said "Dig up or I'll shoot you."  Connors with a smile said "Fire away." Doyle immediately fired, the bullet entering Connors' left breast an inch above the nipple.  After firing the fatal shot Doyle coolly put the revolver in his pocket, walked out of the hotel and made his escape.

   On seeing Doyle draw his gun, Ericson, the keep of the hotel, at once sent Clare for the police and in about five minutes after the shooting took place, Constable Forbes, who was acting during Constable Jarvis' temporary absence on special duty in Nelson, arrived on the scene.  Connors never spoke nor moved after being shot and died in a few minutes.  Constable Forbes at once closed the hotel and engaged as special constable T. W. Ryan, timekeeper on the C. P. R. and placed him in charge of the town while he started out along the trail to notify the police at Goat river crossing of the murder.  A thorough search of the town was made for the murderer but without success, and on the arrival of the steamer nelson on Monday Constables Forbes and Ryan brought the body to Nelson and notified the provincial police department of the occurrence.  They also brought in Ericson and Kyle, who were in the bar room at the time of the shooting and Tom Smith who was supposed to be a chum of Doyle but who swore that he had not seen him since 1893, in Spokane, at which time they were working together on the Great Northern railway.

   After the above facts had been brought out the Coroner's Court adjourned until Wednesday afternoon to allow of a post mortem being held.,

   When the Court re-assembled, Dr. Hawkey, who had made the post mortem examination, gave evidence as to the condition of the body and cause of death.  From external examination he found no marks of violence except a bullet hole in the left breast about the size of a lead pencil.  The doctor described the course of the bullet through the internal organs and identified the bullet produced as being the one he had found in the body of Connors.  Death had undoubtedly been caused by the bullet.  He described the deceased as being a well developed man about thirty years of age, with dark brown hair, light brown moustache and blue eyes.  The jury returned a verdict in accordance with the above facts, that the deceased Dennis Connors came to his death from a bullet wound from a revolver in the hands of J. Doyle alias Sullivan.  Immediately on receipt of the news of the murder Gold Commissioner Dennis issued notices offering a reward of $250 for the arrest of Doyle and on Tuesday morning started for the scene of the murder.  Men were at once despatched along the trails in pursuit of the fugitive.


Tuesday morning Constables Aspdin and Livingstone of the Northwest Mounted Police, who were stationed at Goat river crossing and who had just returned from a patrol to Moyie lake were notified of the crime and were on the lookout for Doyle.  Their quarters are close to the trail within a few yards of where the trail to Port Hill, Idaho branches off. Towards evening they noticed a man answering to the description given them of Doyle, coming along the trail with a pack on his back.  They stepped out and arrested him.  The prisoner offered no resistance and was identified by a German who had known him at Kuskanook and by special Constable Miller.  The prisoner was taken to Kuskanook and on Thursday morning was brought to Nelson on the steamer and lodged in jail.  The news of the capture spread rapidly and when the police arrived at the jail a large crowd had assembled out of curiosity to see the prisoner.  The crowd however made no demonstration.  Doyle is a man about six feet tall, light hair and moustache and weighs about 175 pounds.  Connors is said to have come from Connecticut.


The prisoner was brought before Gold Commissioner Dennis at the court room on Friday at 11 o'clock for preliminary trial, Macdonald & Johnston appearing for the crown.  The prisoner had no counsel.  The same witnesses were examined and the evidence given was practically the same as that given at the inquest.

   The trial was adjourned until this forenoon to allow the court stenographer time to transcribe his notes so that the evidence might be read over to the prisoner.

   This morning after the evidence was read over, the prisoner was asked if he had anything to say and was given the usual caution.  Doyle stood up in the prisoner's box and dais that his name is Davis and that he had lived in the west for 18 years.  The shooting was done in self defence as Connors had threatened previously to shoot him and when he stepped up to him in the Alexander hotel Connors got up and made a motion as if he were going to draw a revolver.  He understood that Connors had a gun, and shot first.

   The prisoner was committed to stand his trial at the next assizes, which will be held in June next.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 19 February 1898


Dennis Connors Shot by Jack Sullivan at Kuskonook on Sunday. Trial; and committal of Sullivan @ Doyle @ Davis.


THE NELSON ECONOMIST, 23 February 1898

Arrest and preliminary trial of Sullivan for murder of Connor.  Editorial comment.


THE LEDGE, 24 February 1898

Another account of the Connors shooting.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 26 February 1898

Fatal Snowslide.

Word was brought down last week from Three Forks that a man had been killed by a snowslide on the north fork of Carpenter creek.  Later it was learned that the deceased's name was J. Trewicke, formerly of Sprague, wash.  He, with his partner, was working on a property they had located last summer.  Trewicke was standing on the dump when the slide came down and was unable to escape.  His body will not be recovered till the snow melts.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 26 February 1898



The authorities have received word of a murder at Bull Head Prairie, on the line of the Crows' Nest Pass railway.  A gang of navvies got mixed up on a drunken row, and one of them, a Swede, was struck on the side of the head and knocked insensible by a man named Carson.  He died next day, not having regained consciousness.  Carson was arrested by inspector Sanders, of the mounted police.

   Dr. Watts, coroner, held an inquest last week upon the body of a workman on the Crow's Nest Pass railway, who was killed by a premature explosion of a blast.


LARRY'S LETTER, from HIGAN'S ALLEY.  Mentions Doyle @ Sullivan. And Inquest.


THE LEDGE (NAKUSP), 3 March 1898


Another unfortunate miner buried beneath an avalanche of snow; another mother's boy laid away in the little grave yard on the hill.

   Sunday evening Grant Thorburn drove into New Denver from Silverton for the coroner and an undertaker to take charge of the body of Wm. J. Lade, who had been killed early in the afternoon by being buried in a snow slide.  Dr. Brouse and Undertaker Baker returned with him and the body was taken in hand by the Coroner.

   Monday morning an inquest was held and in the afternoon the remains were interred in the cemetery here, the Silverton miner's union and all the men of the camp coming up on the steamer Slocan and following the body to the grave.  Fully 150 men were in the line of march.

   The particulars of the fatal slide are told by the companions of Lade who were working with him are these: A slide had blocked the Four Mile road on the Reed-Robertson group and it was impossible for the pack trains to come out with the ore from the Vancouver and other properties.  A party of men went up from Silverton to clear the road-way and with them was young Lade.  Four of them were working on the slide when, without warning, another slide came down and caught all of the men.  The companions of Lade were not injured, though all were more or less covered by the snow.  When they managed to free themselves they set to work to rescue Lade.  One of the party was sent to Silverton to summon help and soon every man in the camp was on the scene. After two hours searching the body was recovered, cold in death.

   A rude stretcher was made and the body carried to Silverton and to the parlors of Thorburn's hotel to await the arrival of the coroner and undertaker.

    A shirt but impressive funeral service was held in the hotel parlor and on the arrival at the New Denver wharf Rev. Powell met the sorrowing friends and went with them to the grave, and there administered words of comfort and peace to those present.

   Wm. J. Lade was a young man well liked by everybody.  He was bit 19 years of age.  Two of his brothers working at Silverton and the three were interested in some very valuable properties on Four Mile.  They came here from the Lardeau.  The Lade family have been peculiarly unfortunate working in and about mines.  The boy's father was caught in a premature blast while working a shift to accommodate a friend and made totally blind; an uncle was killed in a snow slide, and it was while doing volunteer work that the son met his untimely death.





[See THE LEDGE, 3 march, ABOVE.]



William J. Lade.


THE LEDGE, 10 March 1898

Fatal Gun Accident.

At noon one day last week W. S. Wiffen of the Land registry office, Vancouver, went home as usual to lunch.  Afterwards he went out in the small kitchen garden, at the rear of his residence, 1672 Haro street, to shoot some rats that had been doing damage.  He was out for a long time and Mrs. Wiffen went to see what was detaining him.  She had just passed through the little gate, when, to her horror, she saw her husband lying at her feet motionless.  A closer examination showed that he was quite dead.  It was found that there was a bullet wound beside the eye, and that the fatal leaden mesas age was lodged in the brain.  The weapon he had been using was an old and rusty one, and it is thought that when he tried to discharge it did not work properly.  He then, it would seem, began to examine it and while he was doing so it went off with the result that we have stated.


THE LEDGE (NAKUSP), 24 March 1898


A man by the name of Burke drowned himself a few nights ago.  Burke was breaking on the N. & S. Ry. Up to a few weeks ago.  At the time of his death he was working at Genelle's mill.  He seemed to be in trouble and said to his comrades in the bunkhouse that he thought he would drown himself.  They advised him to go to bed, but instead he walked to where the steamer Trail was moored and going on board he shouted to the watchman, "Tell them that you saw me," and jumped into the drink.

   The watchman tried to fish him out but without success.  His body was recovered the next day, and after the inquest, a scanty funeral, with the usual six feet of earth, was given the unfortunate man.  His relatives reside in Minnesota.




Davis, the Murderer of Dennis Connors, Sentenced to be Hanged.

Repeat of the evidence.



Old man Berry, well known in Nelson, was found dead in his cabin at Deer Park one morning last week.  Deceased lived alone, being so eccentric in his habits that few went near his cabin, and no one knew he had been ailing.  The cause of death is not known, but an inquest was not considered necessary.


THE MINER (Nelson), 2 April 1898


Man Blown to Pieces from Careless Handling of Dynamite.

A sad accident happened at the Elise mine on the Wild Horse creek near Ymir on Tuesday evening, whereby a Finlander named Edward Meki lost his life. It appears that he was thawing out fifteen sticks of dynamite in the oven of a stove when it exploded and killed him instantly.  His face and head were practically blown to pieces and both arms and a leg were blown off and a large hole made in his stomach.  The cabin was entirely wrecked, but the strangest part of it is that a man was sleeping within two feet of the stove when the accident happened and escaped uninjured, while the foot of the bed was blown away.

   Dr. Arthur, coroner, went out on Thursday to Ymir and held an inquest.  A verdict of accidental death due to his own carelessness was returned.  The funeral of the remains was held on Friday, and Pete the packer deserves great credit for getting up a subscri9ption to provide a decent burial.


THE LEDGE (NAKUSP), 7 April 1898

An elderly man of some 65 years, named Wm. Covington, who resided in Claremont with his daughter, died very suddenly this week under suspicious circumstances.  The physician who was called in testified that death resulted from strychnine poisoning.  At the inquest it was proved that some unknown person called at Mr. Covington's house a few hours before his death.



Charles Malmberg, a Swede, who has lived in and around Nelson for the past five years, dropped dead in the Kootenay Hotel on Saturday night last at 11 o'clock.  The deceased had been in failing health for a long time past, but his chief trouble appeared to be with his eyes, the eight of which he had almost lost.  He was in the habit of strolling around town in fine weather, and dropping in here, there and everywhere as the notion struck him. Melmberrg was a man of about forty years of age.  The matter was reported to the coroner, but as deceased had been under medical treatment for a long time, an inquest was deemed unnecessary.


THE MINER (Nelson) 16 April 1898

A Swede named Charles Malmberg defied suddenly in the Kootenay hotel on Saturday evening.  He had been in weak health for some time and had almost lost his eyesight.  On Saturday evening he strolled into the Kootenay hotel and sat down in a chair.  A few minutes later he was found to be dead.  No inquest was considered necessary as the deceased was known to have been suffering from heart disease.  The remains were interred on Monday afternoon.


THE MINER (Nelson), 16 April 1898

A fatal accident occurred last week on the Crow's Nest pass railway construction near Lethbridge, when a portion of the new bridge across the St. Marys river was blown down and with it eight men.  A man named Ferguson from Renfrew was killed instantly and the others seriously injured.



Fatal Accident on the Crow's Nest.

Last Thursday afternoon a serious and fatal accident occurred at St. Mary's river, west of Lethbridge, where a bridge is being constructed for the Crow's Nest railway.  A party of men were engaged on the framework, though a heavy wind was prevailing at the time.  Suddenly a portion of the woodwork gave way, carrying with it eight men.  A man named Ferguson, of Renfrew, Ont., was killed, and the others were seriously injured.  The men fell about sixty feet.  All the injured were removed to the Lethbridge hospital.  Later advices state that further deaths have occurred from the effects of the accident.  The killed are: D. Ferguson, Renfrew, Ont., Leon Rieux, Quebec; Jacon Thompson, Revelstoke.  The injured are: A. J. Nordland, Lethbridge; Rory Campbell, Glengarry; John Breslain, Montreal; M. J. Kenny, Glennville; Thomas McBirney, Revelstoke.








Execution of John Davis, alias Sullivan, alias Doyle, for the murder of Dennis O'Connor. 3 columns, with photograph.


THE LEDGE, 28 April 1898


The Body of John Trewick Found on the North Fork.

To be caught in a snowslide and buried beneath thousands of tons of snow is sad enough, but even this would be a happy ending as compared with the fate of John Trewick, who was caught in a slide on the north fork of Carpenter creek, about seven miles from Three Forks, on February 22nd.  At the time of the slide it was believed he was buried beneath the avalanche, and as there was no possibility of his being found alive, and the danger to the rescuing party so great, no attempt was made to find the body.

   Last week a trip was made to the fatal slide by a party of miners, and on the top of the snow was found the body of the unfortunate miner.  It was covered with snow by the party, who returned to Three Forks and notified the brother, who came here at once from Palouse country, and last Saturday a party went to being the body to Three Forks.

   Judging from its position on the snow when first found it is supposed that Trewick managed to escape the slide and sought shelter in the cabin close by, and it is believed that while asleep the cabin gave way under the weight of snow and he was caught under the timbers.  His shoulder was broken, and one knee cap knocked off.  It is thought he remained in the cabin a day or two until hunger forced him to make an attempt to reach help.

   On the snow beside the body was found a pocket knife, pair of scissors and a piece of canvass, with which it is evident Trewick was attempting to make snowshoes that would enable him to travel better, but hunger, exposure and pain soon overcame him.

   The body was drawn seven miles over the snow, on a rudely constructed sled, to Three Forks, and on Monday was interred in the New Denver cemetery.

   Deceased was a Mason, but as there are no Masonic lodges in Sandon or New Denver, he could not be given a funeral with Masonic services, but the following Masons were in attendance: G. F. Dorothy, Robt. McTaggart, Butte No. 22, Mont; Jno. Foster, Shadagee 36, Quebec; J. H. Hawke, J. A. Caldwell, J. A. Deacon, Kaslo 25, B.C; L. A. Wright, Webster 164, Utah; C. M. Wilson, Vinka 7, Utah; Geo. Numson, New Hope 730; J. E. Woods, Boulder 41, Mont.; Wm. De Cox, Grand Orienta 22, City of Mexico; J. A. Tweedie, Alta 195, Escanaba, Mich.  Tom and Harry Trewick, brothers of the deceased are of the Masonic fraternity at Sprague, Wash.


THE MINING REVIEW, 30 April 1898


They Attacked a Walking Boss and Were Shot by Him.

NELSON, April 26. - A murder took place at McLean's camp, near Kuskonook, yesterday.  Two Italians working on the constriction of the Crow's Nest Pass branch of the C.P.R., were killed by a man named Johnson, a walking boss.  The only story of the affair so far is that Johnson and the two Italians got into a quarrel.  The Italians sprang at Johnson, one with a knife and the other with a revolver.  Johnson wrestled the revolver from the one and shot the men.  Johnson was brought to Nelson last night by a mounted police officer.  Dr. Arthur, coroner, and Mr. Dennis, stipendiary magistrate, left for the scene of the murder last night, and inquest is not being held.  No further particulars can be learned up to this writing.    





Yesterday morning acting constable Thompson found George Cooper wandering round in the eastern part of the city, in a shocking condition.  His tongue was hanging out of his mouth and badly swollen, with a gaping wound on the tip of it.  The neck and face were also swollen and discolored, and altogether he presented a most shocking sight.  When spoken  to, Cooper could not speak intelligibly, so Thompson brought him up to Reerzel's drug store, while he went to Dr. Hall to secure a ticket of admission for the man into the Kootenay Lake General Hospital.  Thompson had hardly left before the man expired, those in attendance being of the opinion that he had died of poisoning.  Dr. Arthur, coroner, was notified and determined to hold an inquest in the afternoon.

   Cooper was a painter by trade, and had worked in various parts of the district.  He was much given to drink, and would resort to various schemes to appease his appetite for whiskey.  He had been working for a while recently and then got off on a drunk.  Thursday he was wandering round the streets, with eyes rolling and an open pocket knife in his hand.  In the afternoon he was noticed to jab the knife blade in his tongue, causing the blood to flow freely, and he went round in this condition, pointing to his mouth when asked any question.  He was also observed sticking toothpicks into the wound, but for what reason it is hard to say.  Those who knew him say he was suffering in the evening, but all thought he was scheming to get drinks.

   When broke the deceased has been known to wound himself to get into the hospital for a while.  This he did at New Denver last summer, where he had been working for C. W. Aylwin.  Cooper struck himself on the leg with a hammer causing a nasty wound, and he endeavored to get into Dr. Brouse's hospital in that town .  Yesterday morning he had called on Dr. Forin, and had given the fictitious name of Albert Sawyer, and had attempted to write a short note explaining how he came by the wound.  He then desired to get into the general hospital, but, as he had been in there last fall and had misconduct himself, he was doubles afraid he would have been  recognized by the name of Cooper, so advanced that of Sawyer, in order to gain admittance.

   In the afternoon Dr. Arthur summoned a jury as follows: R. G. Steele, foreman: J. L. Vanstone, W. J. Astley, D. McBeath, S. A. Stoy, and A. Eustan.  After  viewing the remains, which  were then  in the undertaker's parlor, the investigation was adjourned to the fire hall for the evening, so as to permit of a post mortem examination being made.  Upon assembling in the evening, Dr. Arthur lost no time in getting down to business.

   W. Thompson, caging constable, was the first witness called.  He testified to finding deceased in the eastern part of the city early in the morning, when he appeared to be suffering greatly from a wound on his tongue.  This had evidently been inflicted by a pocket knife, which several persons had seen in his possession  the day previous.  The knife was produced in court, its blade being stained.  Deceased was brought up to Teetzel's drug store, and witness went to Dr. Hall to get Sawyer into general hospital, and when he returned he found Sawyer dead.  From information obtained since, witness believed deceased's name was George Cooper.  On the clothes no papers were found, and deceased was not intoxicated when found that morning.

   Dr. Hawkey had made a post mortem examination of the body of Sawyer, or cooper.  He had found a wound on the top of the tongue, which was badly swollen, as also the glands.  Death appeared to be due to the tongue having fallen back on the respiratory tube, causing asphyxiation.  The vital organs were in a healthy condition, except the liver, which was enlarged.  This had nothing to do with the immediate cause of death.  The wound on the tongue was evidently done by an instrument, not the teeth.  It appeared to be a cut wound, which would not have seemed so large but for the swelling of the tongue, which was three times its normal size.  The wound was of a poisoned nature, as some foreign matter must have been introduced.  Shown the knife taken from deceased's clothing, witness thought it likely the blade would have carried poison into then wound.  There were no external marks of violence on the body.

   W. H. Shwerdeger[?] testified to seeing deceased jabbing the knife into his tongue and the blood flowing from the wound.

   L. O'Neill knew deceased by name of Cooper.  Had known him in New Denver and had seen him in Nakusp and Revelstoke, where he was painting.  Witness said Cooper had served three months a while ago for  vagrancy.

   Coroner Arthur said there was no evidence to prove that the man had attempted to commit suicide, and there was nothing to show why he had inflicted the wound upon himself.
   Without featuring the jury brought in a verdict in accordance with the evidence adduced, as follows: "That deceased, Albert Swayer, alias George Cooper, came to his death at Nelson. B.C., on Friday, April 29th, 1898, from a wound on the tongue, which, from the evidence, we believe to have been self-inflicted, but without a suicidal intent."  The jury also brought in a rider, urging that steps be taken whereby patients could be more freely admitted into then general hospital without so much formality as at present.
   In reply, Dr. Arthur said there was need of a changed in that direction, and he would bring the matter to the attention  of the proper authorities.  What was needed was a resident physician at the institution, and this would come in due course.  At the same time it was necessary to guard against imposters, who might bring up an excuse of illness to secure a night's lodging.

   The jury agreed to have the rider amended so as to admit of emergency cases being taken into the hospital on the certificate of a duly qualified practitioner in the city.
   Cooper's remains were interred this morning.

   The body of John Trewick, who was supposed to have been killed in a snow-slide on the north fork of Carpenter creek, seven miles from  Three Forks, dearly in February, was brought into Three Forks Sunday morning  and interred in the New Denver cemetery Monday.  From indications about the cabin and on the slide where the body was found, it is evident that Trewick was not killed by the slide, but died from exposure and starvation  afterward.  The unfortunate miner was caught in the cabin by the slide and part of the cabin fell in upon him, breaking his shoulder and knocking one knee cap off.  He remained in the cabin until forced by hunger to attempt escape, and, in spite of his injuries during[?] himself out and attempted to make his way across the slide.  Near the body were found a [?] knife, pair of scissors and piece of canvass, with two forked tree branches, which would indicate that Trewicke was trying to make snowshoes that would help him cover then snow, when  strength failed him and he slowly froze to death in the snow.  The remains were escorted to the grave by a number of Masons, of which order he was a member. 


An extraordinary case occurred in Nelson on Friday last.  A painter, known as George Cooper, died in Teetzel's drug store under most peculiar circumstances. The man was observed by Constable Thompson wandering about town, and evidently suffering keenly.  The constable endeavored to find out what was wrong, whereupon Cooper, who could not speak, opened his mouth, revealing a much swollen and bleeding tongue.  The constable took the sufferer to the drug store with the object of getting him something to relieve his pain, and as the case was found to be a serious one, he hastened for assistance.  When he returned a few minutes afterwards Cooper was dead.  An inquest was held on the body, and the evidence went to show that the deceased had deliberately pricked his tongue with the blade of a pen knife, and had kept the wound open by prying it with a toothpick.  The tongue and glands were so badly swollen as to cause asphyxia.  Had nothing been known of the man's past history it would be difficult to account for this extraordinary self-infliction.  The object evidently was to qualify for admission to the hospital.  He had been in hospital here before, suffering  from a   self-inflicted wound, and also in New Denver, where he deliberately struck himself on the leg with a hammer.  The man was much addicted to drink, and seemed to have an aversion to work.



The Fatal Snow Slide at Glacier.

The body of the section man, who was buried in the snow slide at Glacier on Wednesday had not yet been recovered up to last night.  He was an Italian named Joseph Paoli.  He in  company with Maxwell, the section foreman, and another man were engaged in stringing the telegraph wires across the wreck left by the first slide, when the second avalanche began to descend.  Paoli seemed to lose his head altogether.  He had plenty of time to get out of the way, and in fact did not have so far to go as Maxwell, who escaped in safety.  His brother who was standing near shouted to him to run, but the unfortunate man just stood in the road of the avalanche now rushing down with fearful velocity without stirring as if fascinated by the impending danger, till the whirling snow buried him before their eyes. 




Harman Knorr Swept to His Death in the Raging Torrent.

The HERALD regrets to announce a fatal accident which occurred last Sunday at the mouth of Carnes Creek.  Harman Knorr, who together with G. C. McGregor and Frank Fritz left here a week ago, as reported in the HERALD, for Peace River by the Big bend route was the victim.  The party were tracking up the river with their boat in front and a Peterborough canoe towing behind.  At the mouth of Carnes Creek, the creek is divided into two reaches by a bar.  They had got across the first reach, McGregor and Fritz were on the north shore with the rope and Knorr on the bar.  As they pulled the boats from off the bar, Knorr got into the canoe and seated himself astraddle on the stern of it.  There is a riffle at the mouth of the creek and the trackers were holding the boats up to meet it, which caused the boat to send a wash on to the canoe, which began to roll and ship water and finally upset Knorr and her load into the water.  Knorr scarcely seemed to make an effort to cling to the canoe.  He held a paddle in his hands, with which his partners saw him try to land on a bar lower down, but the force of the water was too great and he was swept rapidly out into the main body of the Columbia and lost to view.  Messrs. McGregor and fritz came into town to report the occurrence this morning and are at the central.  Knorr came from Okotoks, a settlement about 28 miles south of Calgary in Alberta, and leaves a wife to mourn his loss.


THE LEDGE, 19 May 1898

Down a Shaft.

The Virginia mine at Rossland was the scene of a fatal accident yesterday morning.  The night shift, on going to work, found the bottom of the shaft very foul with smoke from previous blasting.  Wm. James,  finding that he was getting faint, started on the bucket for the surface, a partner going with him.  At a distance of 200 feet from the bottom James lost his senses, and before his mate could c catch him, dashed down to the bottom of the shaft, being rushed into a shapeless mass.



Napoleon Morris and John Dohlman who were employed at the Wren mine on the South Fork of Wild Horse, met with a tragic end on Saturday morning, while engaged in removing the debris of a number of blasts.  They were blown up by an explosion of dynamite which was in a hole that had missed fire.  The poor fellows were instantly killed.  The bodies were brought to town on Sunday and an  inquest held ion Monday by the coroner.  Captain Duncan of the Duncan syndicate made friends with all, by the creditable manner in which he had two handsome caskets brought from Nelson.  The bodies were taken to nelson for interment.


THE LEDGE, 26 May 1898


Rankin; see Revelstoke Herald, 4 June, below.



A miner named Stephen Jeffrey, employed at the Silver King Mine, was killed last week by falling down the shaft,.  An inquest was held on the body, and a verdict of accidental death returned, the jury exonerating the management  from all blame.




Rankin Kills himself in Sandon - A Woman in the Case.

The following account of Ben Rankin's suicide is given by the New Denver Ledger just to hand:-

   Probably the most deliberate suicide ever committed in British Columbia was that of ben Rankin who killed himself in the Bartlet hotel, Sandon, last week.

   Rankin, who was pretty well-known in Slocan, came to British Columbia from Calgary a little over a year ago and located in Slocan City.  A few weeks ago he came to Sandon and has since, and up to the time of his death, been staying at the Bartlett.

   Though of a morose disposition he was generally considered a rather level-headed an d sensible man, and by no means unusual or irrational utterance betrayed any precipitate action.  On the day previous to his demise he went about as usual and during the evening engaged in a friendly jumping contest in front of the Bartlett house, watched the hose-reel practice and incidentally engaged in a little black jack.  About midnight, in company with J. W. Lowes, he had supper at the Palace cafe and shortly after returned to the Bartlett, engaged in a few moments conversation on the usual topics of the day and a few minutes before two o'clock borrowed a lead pencil from jack Lowes and retired to his room, No. 3, just above the bar.  Conversation lagged and they who were sitting about the club room became drowsy when they were suddenly startled by a loud report which they were at a loss to explain.  Some attributed it to the bursting of a champagne bottle, others to some defect in the waterpipe and a few jokes were being engaged in about Spaniards when they were suddenly brought to seriousness by a groan from the floor above.  Lowes rushed to Rankin's room and found him lying on his bed with an ugly wound in his breast from which blood was flowing.  Dr. Power was called instanter, but pronounced the wound fatal and the unfortunate man died in a few moments without speaking.

  The disposition of the articles of clothing and other arrangements showed a deliberate and most premeditated case of suicide.  Coat, vest, shoes and hat, with very evident care had been neatly arranged on a chair close beside the bed.  An open grip lay against the wall, within four feet of the victim's head a heavy Colts navy revolver lay among a few articles of linen and underwear where it had been evidently thrown after effecting its fatal mission.  Two envelopes were lying on the dressing stand, one addressed to "My Friend, Jack Lowes," containing the deceased's watch, a large gold Waltham, with a heavy plated chain attached; the other with a heavy gold ring of rather unique design enclosed, addressed to J. K. Larsen, of Slocan City.  The addresses on both envelopes were written in large, firm, legible characters, betraying no tremor of emotion although evidently performed immediately previously to the overt act of self destruction.  No other letters were found about the apartment, but the coat contained a pocket book, empty so far as legal tender was concerned, but holding a few love letters, a photo of a woman with an unprepossessing face but bearing the unmistakable stamp of the wanton, and some P. O. money order receipts, the collateral for which had been sent to Mrs. B. J. Rankin, Hugh River, Alberta, and later to the same name at Sand Creek, Mont.  The obvious cause of the man's despondency and final rash act was traceable to a letter of recent date in which the object of his adoration disclaimed all feelings of honest love towards her ardent admirer, expressing regret that she should have been the means of casting a shadow across his path and declaring a firm intention to forthwith cease all communication  with a man of whose affections she was altogether unworthy.



Disappearance of Mrs. Spragge.

The mystery which still surrounds the disappearance of A. M. Spragge has been increased by a second disappearance, that of his wife, Mrs. Spragge, who has not been seen since yesterday, when she passed the Union hotel, going along the road towards the river. It is believed that she may have gone to renew the search for her husband, and going too near the edge of the bank, which is in a very dangerous and treacherous condition , have fallen into the fatal waters of the Columbia.  There is a story going round, which in all probability reached her ears, that one of the members of the Harry Lindley Co., almost immediately after their arrival and before the relation  of Mr. Spragge's disappearance had reached him, dreamt that the body of a man, of which the description tallied very closely with the appearance of Mr. Spragge, who was personally unknown to him, was lying among the driftwood at the foot of the smelter.  In times of great mental depression the impression conveyed by the belief in the possibility of a message from another world are stronger than at ordinary periods and the story may have started Mrs. Spragge on a renewed search for her husband at a particularly dangerous spot on the river bank.  Search parties have been organized by the police and are now out looking for her.


Just before the HERALD went to press the news was received that Provincial Constable McRae had found Mrs. Spragge down on the bank some distance below the smelter, unconscious, but still alive.  She is presently at the Union hotel.




The first fatal accident in connection with the operation of Boundary Creek mines occurred at the Snowshoe, Greenwood camp on Thursday morning last, when Hugh O'Thomas was struck by an ore bucket which inflicted injuries so serious that he died four hours afterwards.

   About four o'Clock in the morning the bucket was sent up from the drift with about 40 pieces of steel.  It had not traveled far when it became unhooked and plunged down to the bottom of the shaft where the deceased and John Pritchard were at work. O'Thomas was reached for his candle at the time and was struck on the head by the bucket.  Pritchard escaped un hurt.

   Dr. Foster was sent for and he attended to the injured man.  He was joined by Dr. jakes later but the medical men could do nothing as the skull had been badly fractured near the base.

   Hugh O'Thomas was about 29 years of age.  He was a native of North Rockland, Quebec, where his parents still reside.  He came to Boundary Creek from Rossland and worked at the Snowshoe about a month. ...




At the request of Provincial Officer W. G. McMynn an inquest was held on Monday last to enquire into the cause of death of Hugh O. Thomas, the victim of the accident at the Snowshoe mine.  The coroner's jury were as follows: J. E. Boss (foreman), W. T. Smith, E. M. E. Munns, C. N. Collins, B. F. McIllroy and J. Lucy.  The coroner, Dr. Jakes, and jury went to the cemetery to examine the body, which had been exhumed, and then visited the mine.

   After 6 o'clock the evidence was taken at the court house - John Macaulay, the foreman, and other employees of the mine gave all the details connected with the accident, describing the shaft and the system adopting in hoisting and letting down the bucket.  From the evidence it appeared that the usual pract8ice had been followed the morning of the accident.  The hook had become bent in some way and allowed the base of the bucket to slip out.  Dr. Foster told the jury about the condition of the wounded man when he arrived at the mine, and also gave his professional opinion as to the cause of death.

   The taking of evidence lasted until after 12 o'clock, when the jury decided that the accident was unavoidable and, as far as they could judge from the evidence submitted, no blame could be attached to any one.



Another Theory.

Mr. Hobbs, foreman of the Donald shops, was an intimate friend of A. G. M. Spragge, ...




Discussion ranges over cost of caring for sick strangers, coroner's and doctors' fees.


THE MOYIE LEADER, 13 August 1898


Body of the Murdered Man Found.


His Head was Pounded to a Jelly and His Features Were Disfigured Beyond Recognition.

   A murder, evidently committed in cold blood with robbery the only apparent motive, was enacted within six miles of Moyie City and not more than five or six days ago.

   Tuesday the body of a man was found lying within 20 yards of the tote road about four miles west of this place by David Newlan.  He notified W. G. Bateman, the milk man; who in turn apprised the mounted police stationed here of the fact.  They then notified Coroner Watt of the ghastly discovery.  Dr. Watt not being able to act, Brodie of Cranbrook was summoned and held an inquest the following day.

   The body presented a gruesome  spectacle, the head and face being decomposed beyond recognition from being exposed to the hot sun, but the body was in a fair state of preservation, being protected, and went to show that the man had not been dead more than three or four days.  The skull was pounded almost to a jelly and several large blood stained rocks were found close by which were likely used for that purpose.  The victim had undoubtedly received the fatal blow while on the road, and was subsequently dragged down the hill to where he was found.  He was buried on the spot after the post mortem.  The murderer used very poor judgment in covering up his crime, for if he had dragged the body 50 feet farther, to where there is a deep ravine, it might never have been discovered.

   The man was evidently about  40 years of age, slim built, and  stood about five feet three inches.  His pockets contained a memorandum book, in which was some English and Italian writing, some tobacco and a knife.  He was clad in a pair of overalls, a calico shirt and a pair of heavy shoes.  A short distance from where the body lay a fur-trimmed cap and a pocket cut from a pair of overalls were picked up.  Nothing could be found by which to identify him, but judging from the characters found in the book it is thought he is of Italian extraction.

   G. R. Williamson, bookkeeper at Armstrong's camp six miles west of here, was in town yesterday.  He is positive the murdered man worked at his camp since August 3rd.  His name is Giuseppe Puerio, and his partner's name is Antonio Bruno, both Italians.  He recognizes his own handwriting in the book found on the body and also by the shoes, which he claims he sold the man.  R. A. Fraser, a C.OP.R. timekeeper, also identified the man by the peculiar cap worn by him.  Neither of these gentlemen were present at the inquest, however.

   Last Sunday two Italians left Armstrong's camp together, coming east, and the following day Bruno returned, got some clothing left by his partner and departed again westward Tuesday morning.  The two men had been chums apparently.  They drew their pay last Saturday, and the murdered man's amount due was about $40.

   Sergeant Clopp and Constable Angers are endeavoring to ferret out the mystery, one having taken the road to Bonners Ferry and the other to Kuskonook in an effort to apprehend the guilty party.  Fraser accompanied them in order to identify the man.




Robert W. Roberts, a young Welsh miner met his death in the Old Ironsides mine on Tuesday morning last.  The deceased, M. Austin and W. J. Pierce went down the 200-foot shaft shortly after eleven shots had been fired.  Roberts and Austin were overcome by the foul air.  Roberts died shortly after being brought to the surface while Austin regained consciousness and is rapidly recovering.

   The unfortunate accident was due to the men's haste to see the effects of their shots.  The shift to which they belonged drilled eleven holes in the drift at the 200-0foot level.  They charged the same and came to the surface.  They waited only 15 minutes after the shots were fired and then went down the shaft.  Pierce stopped at the pump 12 feet above the bottom of the shaft.  Roberts jumped from the bucket as soon as it reached bottom and ran into the drift.  He must have become unconscious at once for Pierce heard Austin shout that Roberts was dead.  Austin started into the drift and Pierce slid down the cable and followed.  He found both men unconscious.  He succeeded in getting both men out of the drift into the shaft but the foul air was rapidly affecting him and he went to the surface.  Pat Dermody the foreman at the mine then went down.  He placed Austin in the bucket but the air was still bad and he was unable to lift Roberts.  Austin was brought to the surface and Dermody again went down and secured Roberts.  Dr. Foster was sent for.  Before he reached the mine Roberts was dead,.  He never regained consciousness and died  a few minutes after being rescued from the mine.

   The air in the Old ironsides shaft has always been good and the fatality was caused from the foul air from the powder.  Roberts who was a small man was ambitious to do as much as the opposite shift and he was in the habit of going down the mine too soon after shots had been fired.  His friends often cautioned him to be more careful.

   The accident was a particularly sad one.  Roberts was a particular friend of Hugh O. Thomas who was recently killed in the Snowshoe.  He and Thomas' sister were to be married at Christmas.  For several days previous to the accident he had been making arrangements to take Thomas' body home to New Rickland, Quebec, and intended to leave for the east after next pay day.  Roberts was a native of Carnarvon, Wales.  He came to New Rockland several years ago and came to British Columbia with a number of Welsh miners, a few months ago.  The deceased was a steady, hard working miner and very popular with his fellow employees.

   Austin is rapidly recovering and will be all right in a few days.

   Dr. jakes visited the mine on Tuesday afternoon and decided to hold an inquest.  This was done on Wednesday morning.

   The jury were as follows: J. Fitzgerald (foreman); G. Rumberger, J. Moran, J. Foulds, ---- Burns, George Klinck.  After hearing the evidence the jury brought in a verdict that death was caused by foul air and no blame was attached to any one.



John P. McCormick Meets a Sudden Death in the Old ironsides.

Asphyxiated by Foul Air. - The Finding of the Coroner's Jury.

(4 + full columns; very detailed evidence)

We, the coroner's jury, empanelled to inquire into the cause of the death of John. P. McCormick which occurred on Monday, Aug. 22nd, at the company's workings, do hereby agree as follows: That the said John P. McCormick met his death through poisoning and asphyxiation caused by inhaling carbon monoxide gases generated by the explosion of giant powder used in working   said mine, and we further find that the responsibility for said death was due, first to direct negligence on the part of the deceased in that he did not according to the usual custom of this mine turn on air after firing the shots and before entering the workings, .....


THE MINING REVIEW, 27 August 1898


John L. Wilson Was Killed by a Falling Mass of Rock.

An accident with almost immediately fatal results occurred last week at V. W. Smith's camp at McCormick's landing about six miles below Brooklyn.

   John L. Wilson, a Swede, while working on the right of way of the Robson-Penticton extension of the C.P.R. was struck by a large mass of loose rock that fell from above.  The unfortunate man was knocked over the embankment, and fell on the rocks about 400 feet below.  His companions immediately clambered down, and with considerable difficulty reached the wounded man.  When they go to him he was still breathing, but his injuries were fatal and he expired about 20 minutes afterwards.  The remains were brought down to Nelson for interment.

   Frank Williams, the partner of the deceased, states that Wilson had been working on the road for about six weeks, and that previously the two had been prospecting in East Kootenay.  Wilson who has been about sixteen years on this continent, was a widower, and leaves two little children aged six and eight, who are now at Castle Rock, Colorado.  There is little or nothing for the support of the orphans, for, so far as can be learned, the deceased leaves nothing but an interest in some claims in East Kootenay.



Steamboat Accident.

Nanaimo, 29th August. - The str. Cutch arrived from the north this afternoon with 150 passengers ... A fatal accident occurred at Alert Bay last Wednesday in which three of the crew of the steamer Louise lost their lives.  A photographer was taking the photos of five of the Louise crew, when the railing along which they were leaning gave way, and the five fell overboard.  Two were rescued, but the other three became entangled in the wheel and instantly killed.


THE KOOTENAY MAIL, 10 September 1898



They said it was Sptagge - The evidence in condensed form - The Jury's verdict - "Found Drowned" - interesting evidence.

   The body found Tuesday in the river about ten miles south of Revelstoke was recovered Wednesday ad an inquest was held on it in the afternoon at the Union Hotel.  The coroner, Dr. Jeffs, presided and on the jury impanelled were Messrs. Lindmark, Reid, MacMaster, Paxton, Lawrence and Grogan.

   Soe Wellington, a trapper, deposed to finding the body, notifying the police and conducting them to the place of discovery.

---  A. Johnson, newspaper publisher, testified to the locality body found at and to the character of the clothes and boots found on it.

   W. Newman, roadmaster, gave evidence that from general appearances he concluded that the body found was that of Mr. Spragge.  An interesting part of his evidence was that the toe-cap of one of the boots found was worn in a manner witness had before noticed in Mr. Spragge's boots.  He saw no marks of violence on the body and being a long and particular friend of Mr. Spragge was certain that his death was due to no cause but accident.  The idea of suicide was not justified as deceased was not of morbid mind.  He found a bunch of keys (produced and identified) near the body and amongst the roots of the tree by which it was arrested.

   C. H. Temple, locomotive foreman, went to see body down river to see if he could identify it as Spragge.  He saw Newman searching and saw him find keys produced.  He too believed boots worn by deceased to be of the class worn by Spragge.  He was of the opinion that the body was that of Spragge.

   J. D. Molson, manager of Melson's bank, could not identify the body bout the boots on it were similar to those worn by Spragge.  The peculiarity of the boots was the very broad toes.  The clothing was very much soiled but resembled cloth of last pair of trousers won by Spragge, which were of gray color and bought in town.  Const. McRae brought keys into my office and with me unlocked the roll top desk formerly belonging to Spragge.  Yes, roll top desks were sold with two keys.  I, with McCarter and H. M. Spragge, examined deceased's papers, found nothing to warrant coming to conclusion that his death was in any way premeditated.  From the evidence given he thought the body was that of Spragge.

   E. J. Bourne, postmaster, testified to Spragge holding P. O. Box No. 84.  There were two keys only to box.  Mrs. Spragge had one.  Mr. Spragge the other.  Mrs. Spragge after deceased's disappearance had handed back key and it remained ever since in a box unused.  Constable McRae came in with keys, asked for Box 84 and opened it with key in bunch produced.  No. 84 key will not open any box but No. 84, and had no doubt the key found was that given to Spragge.  Some two months before disappearance Spragge had bought trousers in Bourne Bros. store but did not know color.

   Constable McRae endorsed evidence of former witnesses as to finding, removing and coffining body.  He had keys found by Newman near body.  Besides the keys for roll top desk and post office box he had unlocked side entrance to bank leading to Spragge's office with a key off bunch.  He thought boots on body similar to those worn by Spragge.  Could almost recognize the pants as similar also.  He thought the body found was that of Spragge.  He related what he knew of deceased's disappearance and pointed out that if deceased had fallen in where river bank was caving he had not one chance of getting out.

   The jury gave a verdict of found drowned and stated it as their opinion that the body found was that of Mr. A. G. M. Spragge, late barrister-at-law, Revelstoke.  [Body to Montreal.]


THE CUMBERLAND NEWS, 17 September 1898



About 11 o'clock yesterday (Friday), word reached here from Union Wharf, that James Work, foreman there, had met with a terrible accident, falling between two flat cars, in attempting to pass from one to the other while they were moving, whereby one of his legs, also an arm had been crushed.  Supt. Little and the colliery physician at once took an engine for the wharf.  Shortly after 12 a.m. word came that the unfortunate man was dead.

   Mr. Work was 46 years of age, but as active and lithe as ever, although in recent years troubled with weakness of heart and lungs.  He leaves an interesting family - wife and seven children, all but one boys, for the protection of whom, years ago, he obtained an insurance of $5000 in the equitable Mutual Life Insurance Co., of New York, which was doubtless in force at the time of his death.  It is understood he was a member of the Odd Fellows.  He was raised by Senator Macdonald and more than twenty years past came from Victoria to Wellington from which place he removed to Union Wharf something like a year since.  His remains will be sent to Nanaimo for burial where his son, Walter - who lost his life a month ago today, in the fatal bridge accident - was interred.

   Coroner Abram held an inquest Friday afternoon at union Bay.  Jonah Sargent an eye witness testified:

   "Mr. Work was on forward flat car with Mr. Grieve.  As we were running Mr. Grieve cut rear car off, leaving hind car to me to stop near switch.  Mr. Work seeing hind car cut loose ran over one half of forward car to get on hind car.  While in the act of jumping Mr. ray gave steam, giving car a sudden jerk, pulling it away from the other car.  I saw Mr. Work trying to save himself by grabbing for hind car.  I felt the car going over him.  Soon as I saw him fall I set the brake, but owing to speed I could not stop car until it had gone past him.  Then I saw Mr. Work roll off the rail on top of the culvert.  We got down and made him as comfortable as we could.  Mr. Work wanted to lie there until the doctor came.  I left and came with Mr. Grieve to the telephone.  The engineer could see Mr. Work when he was on the flat car; only he had received signal to go ahead and was looking then other way when Mr. Work fell.  The car ran about half length.  Could not say how far the cars were apart."

   There was other evidence, which however threw no light upon the matter.



We the undersigned juryman find that the death of James L. Work, according to the evidence given, was purely accidental, no blame being attached to any party.



THE KOOTENAY MAIL, 17 September 1898

Fatal Premature Blast.

Three men were killed one day last week by a premature blast on the Robson Boundary railway grade.  The scene of the accident was seven miles below Brooklyn, on the contract of Vernon W. Smith, where four men had a sub-contract.  They were John Kinnear, Oscar Anderson, Tom Lanebau, and Dan Ryan.  The latter was the only one who escaped when the premature blast went off.  Two blasts were being prepared, one of eight kegs and the other of twenty kegs.  In loading the second, after twelve kegs had been put in, the hole became stopped. Lanebau used an iron spoon to clear the opening and instantly the blast went off.  Kinnear, Lanebau and Anderson were hurled 700 feet down the mountain side and died but a few minutes after striking.  Ryan was thrown 15 feet and escaped without injury.


THE REVELSTOKE HERALD, 24 September 1898


Another Miner Looses His Life by Carelessness.

About 1 o'clock on Tuesday afternoon, Ed. Johnson, employed as a miner at the Hall Mines, went down the Kootenay Bonanza shaft on one of the chains belonging to the company.

   The unfortunate man went down to examine the effects of a shot, but did not allow sufficient time for the poisonous fumes of the powder to escape.  When about eight feet from the bottom of the shaft he became dizzy, fell out of the bucket and broke his neck.

   The deceased was an experienced miner, and had worked for some time in the mine, where he was employed as foreman. - Nelson Miner.


THE MINING REVIEW, 24 September 1898


One Man Killed, and Another Fatally Injured.

Mission Junction, Sept. 17 - (Special) - A terrible accident occurred four miles from here in a dense fog at 7:30 this morning which resulted in the death of T. Paulano, section man, and fatal injuries to a man named George Furnell, known as Walker and whose relatives live at 210 Oppenheimer street, Vancouver.

   Three handcars with 10 men started out this morning on the Mission branch, when about four miles from here paused at a bridge expecting a freight coming from Huntingdon.  Not hearing the whistle they proceeded and all three handcars were crashed into by the freight, bring completely demolished.  On the second hand car Furnell was fatally injured and death is expected hourly.  Paulano, on the third car, was almost instantly killed.  All of the men are of the Mission Junction section and fence gang and were going to Huntingdon to fix up the track caused by a Seattle engine running off recently.  Coroner Pittendrigh is expected here from New Westminster on No. 2 this afternoon to hold an inquest.

   Furnell's daughter lives at 210 Oppenheimer street Vancouver, and the rest of the family in Victoria.


THE KOOTENAY MAIL, 8 October 1898



Half a mile below smelter on Wednesday last - Discovered by Siwash - Drowned at Carnes Creek on May 15th last.

   Last Wednesday noon a Siwash named Wellington appeared at the police station and informed Constable McRae that he thought he had found a body about half a mile below the old smelter.  Mr. McRae immediately notified the coroner, Dr. Jeffs, and they, together with the Indian, went down to investigate.

   When the find was first reported it was supposed that it was the remains of one of the victims of the canyon accident, but as soon as the party reached the scene of discovery it found that this could not be the case.

   The body was found in an inclined position on its face, the back of the trunk only being exposed, with the head and limbs buried in the sand.  Carefully digging sway the sand, the body was turned over on its back, showing it to be that of a large man, over six feet high, very square shoulders, with a short, think neck.  The left hand was gone, the bones of the arm bare to the elbow; the left foot was missing; the skull was bare save for a little patch of dark colored hair on the back of the head, and the face showed no signs of whiskers or moustache.  There was found on the right leg a rubber boot of hip length, much worn, and on removing this there was found on the foot an ordinary cotton sock, and the leg below the knee was covered with a piece of heavy under wear.  Aside from this there was no clothing on the body.  The teeth were examined and several were found to be missing, and on lower right jaw one tooth had been broken off, a part remaining.  There were no marks of violence to be seen.

   As the body was in an advanced state of decomposition, it was left on the bar and the party returned to town.  Thursday morning the remains were brought to Revelstoke and placed in Howson's undertaking rooms.  In the evening the coroner impanelled the following jury to hold an inquest: John McMaster, foreman, Messrs. Lindmark, Paxton, Thompson, Barber and Campbell.

   After viewing the body the jury retired to the Union Hotel.  Constable McRae testified as to the finding and condition of the body, substantially as given above.  From the experience he had had with other bodies taken from the river he thought then man had drowned since the 1st if May last, and was positive it was not one of the men drowned in the canyon recently.  Knew of no drowning above here but that of Knorr and the men in the canyon.  Knorr was drowned at the mouth of Carnes creek some time in May.

   A copy of THE KOOTENAY MAIL, dated May 21st, 1898, was placed in evidence and the account of the drowning of Herman Knorr at Carnes creek on May 15th was read.

   Jas. McKechnie, brickmaker, knew Herman Knorr.  Had came up from Deer Park with Fritz, McGregor and Knorr on May 5th.  On May 10th the three men started up the Columbia for the Peace river country.  On May 16th saw Fritz and McGregor in Revelstoke and they told him Knorr had been drowned.  Did not know where they are now.  Knorr was a big man, more than six feet high and would weigh about 200 pounds.  He had very broad and square shoulders, with shirt, thick neck.  Could not identify the body as that of Knorr, though it had the appearance he thought Knorr's would have.

   The coroner gave it as his opinion that the man had been dead about four months.

   The jury decided: That from the evidence adduced they believed the body to be that of Herman Knorr, who came to his death by drowning in the Columbia river at the mouth of Carnes creek on the 15th day of May, 1898.

   The body was interred in the Revelstoke cemetery yesterday afternoon.

   Knorr's widow is believed to be living with her parents at Okotoks, Alta., and has been communicated with.


THE LEDGE (NAKUSP), 13 October 1898


Sunday morning a dispatch was received from Nakusp summoning Dr. Brouse to go there at once to hold an inquest over the remains of a woman found in the woods close to town.  It proved to be the body of Lottie Davis, of the town, who has resided in Nakusp for some time.  An inquest was held and the facts were brought out that the woman was a heavy drinker and had evidently wandered into the woods while temporarily insane or under the influence of liquor, and had died from exposure to cold.  She had apparently become lost in the thicket and became exhausted from her efforts to find her way out.  It was evident that she had been dead some days.



An Italian laborer, whose passport shows him to be one Vincenzo, died suddenly at the Kootenay hotel this morning.  He arrived in town a couple of days ago and represented himself as being dead broke and in ill health.  The man was evidently very weak, and the hotel people allowed him to occupy a seat in a bar room over night,and supplied him with food.  This morning at 8 o'clock he was found dead in the chair.  The police were communicated with, and on searching the body a sum of $45 was found tied up in a handkerchief and wrapped round the right leg.  An inquest will be held tomorrow.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 22 October 1898


A coroner's jury rendered a verdict Thursday afternoon to the effect that Vincenso, the Italian who dropped dead in the Kootenay hotel on Wednesday morning, died from the effects of heart disease.  As the deceased had not been attended by any medical man, a coroner's inquest was deemed necessary to determine the cause of death.


THE CUMBERLAND NEWS, 5 November 1898

Stabbed to Death.

Thursday evening about 6 o'clock word came up from Japtown that a murder had been committed.  Officer Thompson immediately proceeded to the scene of the crime, near No. 1 slope.  Dr. Lawrence was also summoned, but the Jap - Aquichi Toichy - was already dead.  His murderer - O. Miura, - another jap, was nabbed on the street, near about, shortly after reaching Japtown and brought up and incarcerated in the lock up, as were three other japs who were wanted as witnesses.  Coroner Abrams was at once notified, and ordered empanneled which was quickly fone[?], as follows: John Bruce, foreman, George Sutton, Alfred Joyce, Thomas reed, James Halliday, John Richardson and Wm. Noseworthy.  The Jury went down to japtown about 8.30 that evening and viewed the body, and then adjourned to Friday evening at 7 o'clock, to hear testimony.

   So far as can be learned at the time - Friday morning - it was  a drunken row.  Just previous to the murder, the Jap who killed Toichy, stabbed another Jap in the head and gashed his shoulder when Toichy interfered to protect the wounded man, and seized Omiura by the wrist of the arm wielding the knife.  O. Miura dexterously passed the knife to his other hand and thrust it onto Toichy's body just below the heart.  The latter ran a few steps and fell dying in a few minutes.

   Since the above was in type the inquest was held - Friday evening.

   Dr. Lawrence testified that when called he went down and found a lot of men standing around a person lying upon the coal dust.  The man as dead and his clothes saturated with blood.  There was a large gaping wound 2 ½ inches below the left nipple, near the apex of his heart, caused by a sharp instrument driven with considerable force.

   Three other witnesses were called who saw the murder.  There was no conflict in their evidence, and they were close by.  One of them swore they were all drunk, but the other witnesses said nothing of this and there was no drinking at the time.  O. Miura, who did the deed, came into the Jap's house about 5:30 and  said to Kimmora, who was eating at the table, "I come to fight you," to which the other replied, "Come along, I'll fight you," whereupon Miura with a knife the blade of which, as s worn to, was from 3 to 5 inches long, struck him on the head, when the assaulted man threw a cup at him.  Toicho came in and seeing O. Miura fighting with the knife seized the man by the wrist of the hand which held the knife, and in the struggle which followed they both got outside, when Miura wrenched his hand away and stabbed Toichi in the body.  Toichi ran to the railway track about 40 yards off and fell, where he shortly afterwards died.  Neither of the witnesses can remember what either of the persons said, if anything while the struggle was going on or after it.  The witnesses described as pantomime, the way the fatal strike was given, showing it was intentional.  No one knew whether the two first fighting had any previous quarrel, or whether Toichi was a friend of Kimmora whom he evidently was trying to protect by getting the knife away from O. Miura.

   The jury were out but a few minutes when they returned with a verdict to the effect that they found Toichi came to his death by a wound inflicted by O. Miura.

   The accused was remanded by the coroner for hearing before two local justices of the peace, which will probably take place to-night, and the prisoner held to appear before the assizes for trial for murder.


THE LEDGE, 10 November 1898


Two men were killed in the Sunset mine shaft at Rossland last week by being overcome by bad air and falling to the bottom.

   Fred Holt, the lone survivor of the three miners who went down into the Sunset shaft on their fated mission on Wednesday evening, tells a graphic story of his frightful experience.

   "We had been warned by George Drewry against making the descent," said he, "for the air was bad and the pist could not be worked, so that in case of accident we must needs climb the long ladder 250 feet straight up to the tunnel level where the station was cut.  Cain, however, was not inclined to believe that there was danger and we started down.  Although Drewry again protested we got into the skip.

   At the bottom of the shaft the air was not noticeable bad, and we walked out to the end of the crosscut, 310 feet away.  There was a big pile of muck there from the last blast, and Nolan  and Cain set to work moving it back, while I was buidy with the block and the foot board for the drill.  We had been working perhaps 15 minutes, getting everything in readiness for the time when air would be at hand, when suddenly I noticed the gas filling the crosscut and I started back to the floor of the shaft.  Half way there the air seemed to be better and I stopped to rest for a moment.  Behind me came Cain and Nolan, staggering along.  They were very nearly gone as a result of the gas they had been breathing.

   "Where are you going?" I asked of Cain as he reeled towards me.

   "I'll try to get to the surface if I can make it," he gasped.  His face was drawn and white and in the flickering light of our candles his appearance was most ghastly.

   We plunged on up to the mouth of the shaft and I started up.  Behind me came Cain and Nolan.

   The air was steadily getting worse, and I was reeling from the effects of it.

   Suddenly Nolan's light went out.  A moment later Cain's was also extinguished.

   "Both our candles are out," groaned Cain huskily. "For God's sake. Holt, see that yours stays lighted."

   As he spoke a drop of water struck my candle and the little blaze died away.  We were in blackness.

   With a moan one of the two men in the darkness below me fell, and I could hear his body suddenly strike against the timbers at the bottom of the pit.  In a second more the other one of the two men plunged down to the bottom.  We had not yet reached the 300-foot level, and they could not have fallen 50 feet.

   I was gradually growing more faint.  Somehow I managed to keep hold of the ladder, and struggled slowly up.  Overhead I could hear Drewry, the engineer shouting if anything was wrong.  I called back for him to come quickly.

   I knew that I must be near the 200-foot level, and I reached out desperately for something on which to stand.  Only the walls of the shaft were within touch.  Unconscious, I fell back into the darkness.

   By sheer luck, the water column and the air pipe must have caught me, for when Drewry came down he found me, senseless, wedged in between the two.  What happened after I fell back is all a blank to me until I found myself awake on the surface. - Rossland Miner.



THE NELSON ECONOMIST, 16 November 1898


Special Correspondence to THE ECONOMIST.

Albert Knowlton lost his life last Thursday at the Porto Reco mine while following his daily labor as a miner.  He along with his partner were working in a raise, but the gas overcome them, and Knowlton in some manner unexplained, fell face downward into a pool of water where he was found drowned.  An inquest was held on Friday which brought in a verdict of accidentally drowned, attaching blame to no one.  On Saturday the body was buried by the I. O. O. F.  The deceased leaves a wife and three young children for whom much sympathy is expressed.


THE TRIBUNE (Nelson), 12 November 1898

Mining Fatality at Ymir.

A fatal accident occurred at the Porto Rico mine at 9 o'clock Thursday morning.  Albert Knowlton, a miner, who was employed in driving an upraise from No. 3 to No. 2 tunnel, was found lying face down in a pool of water in the upraise.  His partner was found near a ladder at the foot of the upraise in an insensible condition.  He was taken to the surface, and by means of artificial respiration, was brought back to his senses.  A similar attempt was made with Knowlton, but it was unsuccessful.  The presumption id that the cause of the accident was the gas resulting from blasts of giant powder.


THE MINING REVIEW, 19 November 1898

Suicide at McGuigan.

Ed. Weeka, a miner, who had been foreman of the Silver Belle mine at McGuigan, committed suicide at that place Thursday morning early by cutting his throat with a razor.  The Silver Belle closed down about three weeks ago, and deceased had some $450 with him.  He went to White-water and had a long spree, spending the most of his money.  He then went to McGuigan to recuperate, and in despondency committed the rash act.  Mr. Gintzberger took the body to New Denver, where an inquest will be held to-day. No one knows whence he came, or where his relatives reside.  He is supposed to have considerable money in the bank.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 19 November 1898

It Was Not a Case of Murder.

The Cascade City murder case has dwindled down to a death from pneumonia.  A coroner's inquest and post-mortem revealed the fact that Hazleburg's death was due  to pneumonia, and was not hastened by any wounds which he received from  Lamb, the man with whom he had the fight.  Lamb, however, has been sentenced to a term of two months imprisonment upon a charge of common assault.

Supposed Suicide at McGuigan.

Foreman Wicks, of the Silver Bell, was found dead with his throat cut at McGuigan Thursday morning.  It is supposed that he committed suicide.


THE CUMBERLAND NEWS, 19 November 1898



Nanaimo, Nov. 17 - [Special to The News.] - The funeral of geo. Lee, one of the victims of the explosion, took place to-day and was largely attended.  That of Wm. McGregor takes place on Sunday. ...


Victoria, N.C. Nov. 17 - Particulars have been received by the officials, of the accident which occurred on Sunday at Ashcroft.  A Chinaman was engaged in cutting a log which rolled on him, pushing him into a fire and holding him there until he was burned to death.

THE LEDGE (NAKUSP), 24 November 1898


E. Weeks, an Englishman, about 40 years of age, suicided at Brown's hotel, McGuigan, Wednesday evening, by cutting his throat with a razor.  He had been drinking a great deal lately, and this was the cause of his rash act.  The body was brought down here by S. Gintzburger, but Dr. Brouse, coroner, did not deem an inquest necessary, so the remains were buried on Saturday.  Deceased had been foreman in a number of mines, being employed last at the Silver Bell.  He had considerable money in the bank.


QU'APPELLE PROGRESS (Saskatchewan), 8 December 1898

Commits Suicide.

Victoria, Dec. 1. - John Partridge, the well known dry goods merchant of this city, was drowned today at Shawengan lake, thirty miles from here on the E. & N. Ty.  Particulars of how the drowning occurred are not yet to hand.  Mr. Partridge has been in low spirits for some time past on account of poor health.

Victoria, Dec. 2. - At the inquest at Shawnigan today the coroner's jury in the case of John Partridge, whose death by drowning was reported yesterday, returned a verdict of suicide while temporarily insane.  It seems that he weighed his clothing with stones and secured himself to the boat by a rope, so that there should be no difficulty in recovering the body.


MOOSE JAW HERALD TIMES (Saskatchewan), 9 December 1898

Perrier Arraigned.

VANCOUVER, Dec. 2. - Donald Perrier, the New Westminster murderer, was charged with his crime yesterday, but was not asked to plead.  He rose and wanted to make a statement, but as he had no counsel, Magistrate Corbould, in the interests of the prisoner, which British justice always safeguards, refused to hear him, and an adjournment was made until Monday next.  An inquest was opened by Coroner Bittendrigh, but the only proceedings were the impanelling of a jury and the viewing of the body.  Ad adjournment was then made until today.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 10 December 1898

ATTORNEY-GEBNERAL MARTIN has taken up the matter of the holding of unnecessary inquests by coroners, and has notified all coroners that hereafter before holding inquests they must make a declaration to the effect that they have reason for believing that the deceased did not meet death from natural causes, from mere accident or mischance, but came to his death from violence or negligent conduct of others, under circumstances requiring investigation by a coroner's inquest.  Unless such a declaration is made the attorney-general's department will not allow fees.  The attorney-general also records his objection to the unnecessary calling of medical witnesses.  He says that heretofore coroners have been in the habit of securing medical testimony where none was required, an d a s a check upon the coroners he proposes that when medical. Testimony is unnecessarily called the medical men will be paid, but the amount so paid them shall be deducted from then coroners' fees.  It is safe to say that there will be a considerable falling off in the number of coroner's inquests under the new regulations.


THE NELSON TRIBUNE, 17 December 1898

A Swede named Emil Engsgtrom died on the tote road a short distance from O'Leary's camp on  the Robson-Penticton road on Thursday.  Engfstrom complained of being ill, an d before he could make the camp or assistance could be got to him he died.  The coroner has decided that an inquest was not necessary.


THE LEDGE (NAKUSP), 22 December 1898


Of Snowslides this Season Killed on Cariboo Creek.

Last week Dr. Brouse received a telegram from Jos. Darraugh, of Nakusp, informing him that two men had been killed in a snowslide in the Cariboo creek camp and asking him to hold an inquest.  The Doctor replied that he had resigned his coronership, consequently could not go.  These first victims of the snowslide fiend for this season were named A. L. McDonald and A. Malcolm, of Rossland.  They were employed in the property of the Silver Queen Mining Company, situated on Snow creek, in the Cariboo creek camp.

   The two men were among the best miners at work at the Silver Queen.  They were in the blacksmith shop at the time, and the bodies were found side by side, badly bruised and disfigured.  The two men left ROSSLAND on the 17th of last month to work at the Silver Queen.  Just before going Malcolm expressed a dread of going in the Cariboo creek district, as he feared slides, but he overcame his temerity and left on the trip that cost him his life.  His family, including a wife and a daughter, lives in Rossland.  Mrs. Malcolm is at present ill. Miss Malcolm is employed in the Model bakery on Washington street.  The family also numbers three boys.  Mr. McDonald was formerly employed at the Sunset No. 2.  He has a son at Phillisburg, and two daughters with his sister in Montana.  Both the dead men were Masons. [details.]


THE MINING REVIEW, 24 December 1898

A Fatal Accident.

Nelson, B.C., Dec. 17. - John O'Leary, a well known railway contractor who has been operating in Kootenay district for several years, was killed yesterday on the Robson-Penticton e=railway, upon which he had a sub-contract.  While he was superintending the lowering of a large stone into its place one of the guy ropes broke and the mass of the derrick swung downwards, pinning the unfortunate man to the ground and injuring him so severely that he died 20 minutes later.  Deceased was a native of Maine.


THE MOUIE LEADER, 31 December 1898


Three Chinamen Found Dead at Quesnelle, B.C. - Six Suspects Arrested.

Victoria, Dec. 6. - News of a shocking tragedy at the big hydraulic mines at the forks of the Quesnelle, centre of the Cariboo mining district, reached here this afternoon in a telegram to Attorney-General Martin and Superintendent of Police Hussey.  The telegram stated that three miners were found murdered, and six men were under arrest.  A special to your correspondent from Soda Creek said a fight occurred among some Chinese in a cabin on Cold Springs, near the mines, resulting in the death of three Chinese.  Two were found almost beheaded with an axe, the other hanging in the barn.   Six Chinese have been arrested.  The murder is surrounded with mystery, and is said to be caused over a Chinese secret society trouble.  The fact that one man was found hanging gives ground to a belief that this man committed the deed and afterwards suicided.  The men arrested will be tried at Quesnelle, where an inquest will be held to-morrow.

Published by Centre for Comparative Law, History and Governance at Macquarie Law School