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Colonial Cases

Bribery Case, 1889

[bribery of police]

Bribery Case

Mixed Court, Shanghai
Tsai and Carles, 1889
Source: North China Herald, 11 January 1889

  At the Mixed Court on Friday morning before Magistrate Tsai and Mr. Carles, British Assessor, the above case was proceeded with.
  ZE A-TAH a gambler gave evidence.  He said - I am a gambler, and seeing the reports of this case in the native papers, I came forward as a witness or middleman.  Wong Fen-tsao, Le Sung-ding, "No-pi" (chop dollar) A-pao and myself had a consultation and we decided to give half a dollar for each gambling table a day to the police, payable half monthly, so that the police should not interfere with us.  Some of the money was paid to Wong Fen-tsao, some to Li Sung-dung and some to Yang and these were to pay the money to the police.
  The Assessor - Why did you pay the money to Wong Fen-tsao knowing that he was not connected with the Police?
  Witness - Because he knew we was a good friend of Yang.
  LI SUNG-DONG who has been over ten years in Shanghai said - I am a Shroff in the gambling establishment in Hongkew.  I have no fixed   salary; sometimes I receive more, sometimes less.
  The Assessor - Who is the proprietor of the gambling establishment?
  Witness - "Mo-pi" A-pao, Yang-tsz, the tipao Aza, Ho A-chi, Wong Tsiu-kai and Wong Fen-tsao.  He also told me that he had a friend from Hongkong who knew Ni Pong, and Ni Pong knows Inspector Cameron's boy.  No. 36 (ex-Detective Mack) a long while ago, wanted to make a raid on the gamblers, and the gamblers were informed through Inspector Cameron's boy who told Ni Pong that the raid was to be made.   The raid was made by a native detective, and the place was burnt to the ground.  We then removed to the Ching-chia-wei, about 5 or 6 miles distant from the old place.  We then agreed to pay the Police to leave us alone. The money was sent, and handed by me to Inspector Camron's boy regularly, till the boy went to Hongkong, when I handed the money to Yang (Interpreter.)
  The Assessor, producing a Chinese account book, said: There is mention made in this book of a payment of $200 to Yang.  Why did you pay this money, on what account was it paid?
  Witness - There is an entry of $200 paid to Yang, but this has nothing to do with my gambling transactions; the money was paid to clear a mortgage.  There are two accounts opened in the book, one for money paid for Inspector Cameron, and the other for his boy, Yang, and other subordinates.  On one occasion, I met Inspector Cameron at the Rifle Butts, "Mo-pi" Apao and Yang were with me, and I saw "Mo-pi" Apao hand Inspector Cameron some notes.   On a certain occasion, the Police were going to make a raid on us, and the Inspector's boy sent us a note to warn us to keep out of the way, but this note was received by Wong Fen-tsao and he said nothing about it because he had quarrelled with the other proprietors, and he kept it as proof against Inspector Cameron's boys. This he did because the other proprietors did the business through the boy, instead of through him.  The boy knowing this informed his master. The consequence was that Wong Fen-tsao was arrested as a gambler.  I heard that $60 in notes were sent to ex-Detective Kelly who took the money to Inspector Cameron, because he could not receive it, but the Inspector wanted to divide the money with him.  Kelly reported the matter to the Captain Superintendent, and the money was confiscated.
  The Assessor - How do you know this?
  Witness - It was talked about by the gamblers and the information came from the Inspector's boy.
  Lo Ah-chao said - I am Inspector Cameron's boy, I have come up from Hongkong.  I attend to Mr. Cameron's "chow chow" department.  I do not know any of the gamblers.  About two months ago, Yang wanted to see Inspector Cameron and I had instructions from my master, not to let him see him (my master), and so I would not allow him to go upstairs.  In consequence of this, Yang had a grudge against me.
  The Assessor to Yang - What is your business in the police Station, and where do you live?
  Yang - I live in Hongkew and I am a writer for the Captain Superintendent of Police, and I write letters, etc., for him.  I am acquainted with Li Sung-dong, the Shroff.
(A native detective named Lo A-zung here called out "You always said you did not know this shroff; how is it now that you say you know him?)
  Yang took no notice of the remark and continuing his evidence, said - A gambler, - was arrested and fined $500.  Inspector Cameron bailed this man out, which he ought not to have done, being a Police Officer.  I received envelopes enclosing dollars and besides $10 loose.  I received this money from the gamblers and handed it to Mr. Cameron, asking him for a receipt which he declined to give.  With reference to the $200, that had to do with another matter.  I was at the Rifle Butts when "Mo-PI" A pao handed Inspector Cameron the notes, and one night, the Captain Superintendent wanted to have "Mo-pi" arrested, whereupon Inspector Cameron sent someone to warn him, and "Mo-pi"  got so excited over the information that he jammed his finger in a safe.  On another occasion when the Captain Superintendent wanted to arrest the gamblers, the Inspector also gave them warning.  The Captain Superintendent suggested that the Taotai should send some soldiers to assist the Police to guard the locality, but through the Inspector's advice, this was not done.
  The Assessor - It was I who advised that the soldiers should not be sent.
  Li Ching-dong, an ex-detective,  said - One night, I was in an opium ship with Wong-a-su one of the detectives and Yang,  I heard Yang say the police wanted money from the gamblers, and I know that Yang gets paid by the gamblers, even by the lowest gamblers.
  Chang Mao, a tipao, said - I heard Lo Sung-ling, who brought the charge against Inspector Cameron, say that Yang had instigated him to do so, and that he would not have dared to do it, if Yang had not sworn to sacrifice his own son, if he did not back him (Lo Sung-ling) up.
  Inspector Cameron denied the statements made about himself and in proof that he had had nothing to do with receiving bribes, he said he had made 369 raids on gamblers and that at present there is no gambling going at the places he had raided. With reference to the statement that he stood security for a man in $500, he did not.  A shopkeeper bailed the man out and he, the Inspector, only took the bailee to the Mixed Court to get the prisoner out.
  The case was then adjourned for a week. Before the parties left the court, a detective said to Yang "you always want the Chinese constables to stand treat at the opium shops" which Yang denied saying it was not true, and that he was out of the Police now.


Source: North China Herald, 30 January 1889

  At the Mixed Court, on Monday before Mr. Tsai, Magistrate, and Mr. Carles, British Assessor, the above case was heard for the fifth time.
  The first witness called was
  "MO-PI" APAO who stated - I have been in Shanghai about nineteen years, and with five other persons agreed to pay $130 a month to Li Sung-ding to be handed to Yang.  I never saw Inspector Cameron on the 11th day of the 4th month near the Rifle Butts. I have only just come from Kiu Loong.
  LI SUNG-DONG stated - I never had any thing to do with handing money to the police, and on account of this case I have suffered a great deal at home.
  LO SUNG-LING and LO KWAN-YI said that on the ninth month, 26th day, they saw Ching-ding go into the City and he met a man named Wong there.  They had a conversation about the Police raid on the gamblers, and Wong suggested that he should go and summons the police for taking bribes.
  YA MING-FU said I met Yang; he wanted me to go to a small opium, shop, to a small room in it.  When we got there, Yang told me to go to the Tao-tai with this case, and that the police would give me $100 a year, but I refused to do as he requested.
  A Chinese woman, whose husband had skipped his bail, said - my husband who had been arrested as a gambler, had nothing to do with the gambling.  One day a man came to my house and wanted to see my husband, but I said he was not at home.  I asked him who he was, and he said he was Yang's cook.  I said my husband would be back in two or three days.
  The Magistrate believed the petition had been instigated by some one.
  Inspector Cameron made a few remarks to the court, directing attention to the serious nature of the accusations, the way in which it was presented, the way in which it was brought into court, and to the statement that had been made by the petitioner, namely, that if Mo-pi Apao and Li Sung-dong were produced, they could prove the charge.  After great trouble and difficulty, and at no small expense, these men had been produced, and now they did not in any way prove the statement in the petition.
  In the petition, charges were made against three individuals, but all the evidence had been directed solely against himself.  Not a word had been said against the other two.  The charges against them had not been mentioned at all, which tended to show that the main object of the petition was to do him an injury.  That this was so, he thought would be proved in the next case.  The petitioner, he contended, had proved nothing at all; he had simply said what he had been told.
  Mr. Carles -He says he saw them write in the books that certain monies were paid to you.  The book shows that monies were paid to Fuh-kee which refers to you.
  Inspector Cameron - But he does not know of his own knowledge that I received money, and he has not proved that I have received a cent.  Now, as you are aware, it is a very serious matter for me, and not only for me, but others, for all the foreign members in the force; in fact, for men like these to make petitions and bring to the notice of the authorities serious charges without having a single person to substantiate them.  I do not think, from what I have been able to make out of the evidence given, that he has proved money was received by me.  It is a serious matter, and he should be punished.  It is a serious matter that after twenty years of public service these charges should be made against me.  During that time I am glad to say I have only been asked on two occasions to receive bribes, and the circumstances of one case are well known to the authorities of the Settlement.
  Captain-Superintendent McEuen said this case was reported to him, and he reported it to the authorities.  It was a very serious thing that the petitioner should be induced to write the petition, when he knew nothing whatever of the facts, and he thought if he were not punished, it would be a very bad precedent indeed.
  Mr. Carles - The man said no one induced him to write the petition.  He did it all himself.
  Captain-Superintendent McEuen - Then he ought to be punished.
  The Magistrate and the Assessor then retired to consult as to their decision.  They returned after an absence of twenty minutes.
  The Magistrate, addressing the petitioner in Chinese, said that there was no proof whatever that Inspector Cameron had received bribes from the gamblers, and he expressed his belief that some one else had prompted the petition.
  Mr. Carles said he thought it was advisable to tell Inspector Cameron that there was no evidence to induce the Magistrate or himself that he had received bribes from the gamblers.  He was glad to be able to relieve the Inspector's mind on that point.  At the same time he also deemed it necessary to explain that the evidence showed that a great deal of money had been paid out by the gamblers to a number of persons who represented the police.  The petitioner was perfectly conversant with everything that occurred in the gambling shop, and monthly or half monthly payments were made with the intention that the money would reach the hands of the police; and he explained that there was no evidence to show that in sending in the petition, which, under the circumstances, was a reasonable and proper course for petitioner to take, the petitioner was not actuated by malice, and therefore the Magistrate had decided that he could not punish him.
  The next case when it came to be heard would probably show who had received the money that had been paid.  He complimented Captain Superintendent McEuen and Inspector Cameron on their untiring perseverance in working up the case to get at the truth.
  The next case is a charge against Yang, the police Interpreter, of receiving bribes.  Both he and Li Sung-dong are now under bail to appear when called upon.  Their case will be heard after the Chinese New Year holiday.


Source: North China Herald, 15 February 1889

Shanghai, 13th Feb., 1889
  On Wednesday, before Magistrate Tsai, and Mr. Carles, the British Assessor, YANG LI-HUNG, late Interpreter to the Municipal Police force was put forward on two charges:
  First - Having accepted under colour of his office as Municipal Police interpreter, bribes from native gamblers at Hongkew, near Shanghai, on various dates, between the 1st if June, 1887, and the end of March, 1888, and in particular with having on or about the 3rd or 4th day of the 10th moon of the 13th year of the reign of His Imperial Majesty Kwang Hsi, Emperor of China, accepted from the said gamblers as a bribe the sum of sixty-five Mexican dollars, and having on or about the  1st moon of the 14th year of the reign of his said Imperial Majesty accepted from the said gamblers as a bribe the further sum of Five Mexican dollars, payment of the said bribes having been obtained by him, by reason of his promising or pretending that in consideration thereof he would enable the said gamblers to escape from or to evade the pursuit of the said Municipal Police by giving to the gamblers information as to the intended proceedings of the  said Police.
  Second. - Being a party to and the original contriver of a false and malicious charge or information made to the council for the Foreign Community of Shanghai north of the Yang-king-pang Creek against John Black Cameron in the employ of the said Council as Chief Inspector of the said Municipal police of accepting from native gamblers in Li Hongkew aforesaid bribes to induce him the said John Black Cameron to violate his official duty.
  Mr. R. E. Wainewright appeared to prosecute on behalf of the Municipal Council.
  M. H. Browett defended, and the Rev. Mr. Muirhead was present to assist in the interpretation of the evidence.
  Mr. Wainewright, in opening the case, dilated upon the serious nature of the charge made by the prisoner against Inspector Cameron, and said it was his intention to proceed with this charge first.
  The first witness was the keeper of a small opium shop, named Nieh Kuei Ching, who said - Formerly he kept a small shop and knew Yang, the defendant.  About the 22nd or 23rd of the 10th moon he saw Yang.  Shortly before that, witness had been arrested for gambling and was brought to the Mixed Court.  He was released on the 18th of the 10th moon.  Yang's cook asked him to go and see his master, which witness did.  Yang asked him if he gave any money to get out, and witness said he had not.  Yang then asked him if he gave the detective any money and witness again replied not. Witness told him he did not use any money in the yamen, meaning the Mixed Court.  Yang mentioned the name of Ting Ching-say, and asked witness if he had asked him for money, and he said "No." Yang also asked him if Mr. Cameron had sent Tong Ching-say to ask witness for money, and witness said he had not.  Something was said about a letter to Loh Sung-ling.  Did not know Mr. Cameron then and had never spoken to him; witness did not tell Yang that several persons had written a petition accusing Mr. Cameron of receiving bribes.  Some time afterwards witness met Mr. Yang in an opium shop in the French Concession.  Yang asked him to go to the opium shop, witness having met him in the Foochow Road.  He asked him to go with him to an opium shop in the French Concession - the Hung-tai shop.  It was after five o'clock in the evening. Yang asked him to take Loh Sung-ling to the opium ship, witness did not.  Witness's younger brother did, and they met Yang there.
  Yang was writing on three pieces of paper with an English pencil, but witness did not see what he wrote.  Witness left them writing together and went to another opium shop, and then came back. They then asked him to put his name on the paper, and asked him to sign it, but he refused.  They asked another man to sign the witness's name, but he did not.  Loh Sung-ling was there and he signed the petition.  It was written by Tze.  Yze, Loh Sing-ling, Yang and consulted about presenting the petition.  The letter was sealed up and handed to witness who put it into a pillar letter box. The three pieces of paper written by Yang were taken by Loh Sung-ling, who said they would be evidence if anything turned up in the matter.  The here pieces of paper (produced) were those which witness saw Yang write with a foreign pencil.  He afterwards met Yang in the Foochow Road, but did not talk about this matter.  The Chinese paper he saw written put in the opium shop was very like the petition produced, but the paper was thinner.  Witness did not know how to read Chinese.
  Cross-examined by Mr. Browett - The witness said that he had lately been away in the country bringing cotton, and on his return the prisoner sent or him.  Witness was also asked by a native detective and detective officer Jones to go to see the Captain Superintendent.  Witness was arrested in September last year and kept for six weeks in the Mixed Court.  He had not paid Loh any money in connection with the petition against h police.  After his release, Yang's cook asked him several time to go to his master's house which he ultimately did.  Yang asked him if it was not true that he had to give $100 to Inspector Cameron to procure his release.  Witness said what was true, that he had not.  Witness saw Yang writing the three pieces of paper in the opium shop.
  In reply to the Magistrate the witness said the reason he would not sign the petition was because the prisoner and his friends wanted him to say in it that he had paid Mr. Cameron $100 to get released.
  The next witness was Loh Sung Ling who wrote the first petition.  He said that on the 5th of the 9th moon he was brought to an opium shop where he saw Yang smoking the drug.  Three pieces of appear containing writing were lying on a table and Yang asked witness to put his name to one of the papers which he read.  In it witness's name was mentioned, and witness remarked that it was a big thing to put his name to a paper of that sort.  Yang thereupon said it was only a small matter and that he would take any responsibility that might be incurred.  Witness saw the petition posted.
  On cross-examination, the witness admitted that he had previously sent a petition to the Taotai in reference to a statement that one of the police inspectors had been paid for bailing some Cantonese gamblers out of the Mixed Court.  For this the Cantonese wanted to beat witness and he had to leave Shanghai.  The gamblers lost $1,000 on that occasion.  Yang did not ask witness to send the petition containing the charge of bribery against Inspector Cameron.  It was suggested though Nieh Kuei-ching (previous witness).
  To Mr. Wainewright - He got no money from Yang beyond a loan of $2 this present moon.
  To the Court - He got no money for sending the petition, which he did by himself.  Yang told witness that the petition would ultimately reach the Municipal Council who would hand it to Capt. McEuen who would give it to witness for translation.
  A schoolmaster named Yaw Ling Fu stated that Yang had asked him to see Inspector Cameron who said he had done him (prisoner) an injury and he promised witness $100 if he would upset the Inspector.  Witness refused to do so.
  Cross-examination - This conversation took place in an opium shop.
  This completed the evidence for the prosecution.  Mr. Browett intimating that he would call no wit nesses for the defence.
  After the usual adjournment, and the re-assembling in the afternoon, Mr. Wainewright said that since the court adjourned, a deposition had been handed in by Tze, the writer to the Court.
  Tze was called and stated - That some time ago the prisoner sent for witness who went to the Hong Tah opium shop in the French Concession, where he net Yang and Loh.  Yang asked witness to write the petition, witness refused and Yang said no one outside would know anything about it.  Witness understood that Yang was the instigator of the business.   
  On cross-examination the witness said he was not positive that Yang instigated the petition, as Loh asked him to write the petition.  The three pieces of paper (produced) were said by Loh to have been written by Yang.  He did not know if Nieh Kuei-ching was at the bottom of the business.
  Re-examined by Mr. Wainewright the witness said that from the way in which Yang spoke and the prominent part he took, witness concluded that he was the instigator of the petition.
  The prisoner in reply to the Court denied that the three pieces of paper were written by him, and asserted that he went to the opium shop at the request of Nieh Kuei-ching who wanted to send the petition.  He (prisoner) was not the instigator of the petition.  Prisoner told Nieh Kuei-ching, when the latter came to him for information, that he had heard some rumours about Inspector Cameron, but not a bout detective Jones, and the native detectives.
  Mr. Browett in his address for the prisoner urged that Yang's name had been wrongfully used by Nieh Kuei-ching, and that there was not sufficient evidence to show that Yang was the instigator of the petition.  It was true that he was in the opium shop when he petition was sent in but only as a witness.
  Mr., Wainwright commented upon the fact that not a word of evidence had been brought forward in support of the statement of the prisoner, whose conduct all along had been marked with malignity and plots against his superior officers.  Finding that Inspector Cameron was too honest for him he set to work to blacken his character by making serious charges against him, which he had utterly failed to prove.
  The prisoner said that he had two witnesses, but they were now afraid to come to the court.
  Mr. Carles said that the magistrate found the prisoner guilty.
  The prisoner was removed in custody, bail being refused, and the court intimated that the magistrate would have to consult with the city authorities before passing sentence, as the prisoner wore a graduate's button.
  The other charge will be heard on Monday.


Source: North China Herald, 22 February 1889

Shanghai, 18th Feb., 1889
Before Mr. Tsai, Mixed Court Magistrate, and Mr. Carles, British Assessor.
  In this case, Yang, the late Police Interpreter, was charged with receiving bribes.
   Mr. R. E. Wainwright appeared to prosecute, and Mr. H. Browett was for the defendant, and there were five interpreters present.  As soon as he case came on, Yang handed in a document and made some remarks, whereupon Mr. Carles asked what the purpose of the document was.
  Mr. Browett - I am not quite clear what he is driving at.
  Mr. Carles - It appears that this person, this prisoner, wants to go back to an old charge.  He says he has papers to prove that Inspector Cameron has received bribes.  I have stated that the charge has been made before, and that there was no proof of such a statement.  Yang tries to have the old case re-opened.  I think these charges should not be made by a prisoner in custody with a case already heard.
  Mr. Wainewright - I charge prisoner with receiving bribes from gamblers on the 17th or 18th November, 1888, while holding an official position.
  Mr. Browett - I ask the Court to order the witnesses to go out of the court.  Mr. Wainewright made a similar request, but when Mr. Browett wanted the foreign witnesses, the Captain Superintendent and the Chief Inspector, ordered out, Mr. Wainwright objected.
  Mr. Wainewright (to the Court) - The Court stated in the previous case that it was decided that money had been received from gamblers.  If that is admitted, I need not call witnesses.
  Mr. Carles - That is admitted.
  Mr. Wainewright - I first charge Yang with receiving money generally as bribes. Then in the 10th month 1887, with receiving $65, and in February 1888, the sum of $5.
  HO AH-PAO, the first witness called, stated - I have known Yang a long time, and have had communications with him. I once offered him a present of a ham and some sweets.  Yang did not accept these things, but wanted money instead.  The presents were taken to his house through a native, and the money was asked for through the native, and as the things were sent back, I paid Yang $4 through the native who was a Hongkew man named Yung Fu.  I have given Yang money twice, personally, in two periods (sixteen days) and the sum was $65 each time.  Yang said the Captain Superintendent wanted money for giving us information of Police raids.  The money was paid to Yang for about three years, and it was collected from the different tables, fifty cents being collected daily from each table, and the deficiency was made up from the large able.  Payment was stopped in the 11th noon of the year before last, because Wang Wen-chao was arrested, and people said that Yang's statement was false as regards the money being paid to the Superintendent.  Yang was informed why the money was stopped, namely on account of the arrest.  He said that if the money was not continued to be sent, he would have me arrested.  This conversation took place at Li Hongkew. Yang had been speaking about No. 30 (Detective Jones) and said that he used to go to his (Yang's) house, and they were to make him drunk and get him dismissed by the Captain Superintendent.  I saw some of the raids that were made, the sheds were broken down. Yang said we were to look out for Sunday.  
  I recollect the 10th moon of the year before last when I paid Yang $65.  I had no time to go myself so sent the money through Yang Kit-song. I also sent $5 by Yang Kit-song at Yang's request.  I do not remember the exact date, but it was some time the year before last.  Last year I went to Canton because Yang said he would get me imprisoned.  I heard this, as it was talked of in the tea-shops and opium shops, and friends told me so.  Li Sung-tao did not come to me from Yang before I went to Canton. He lived near Yang two years before but afterwards moved.  I did not know Mr. Cameron before; I know him now; I never paid him any money.  I do not know his boy; I never sent him any money; I do not know such a person as Chung Ah-kwei.
  By Mr. Browett - I have seen Yang very often on the road in Hongkew and in Sung's house.  If I had business with him, I spoke to him, if I did not, I did not.  I had conversations with him the year before last, when the people eat water-melons (summer time) about removing from my home, because Yang said the detectives were going to arrest me.  Li Sung-tao was there at the time.  I have paid money personally to Yang on two occasions, $65 in Hongkew once, and $65 at Yang's door.  The third time the money was paid by Yang Kit-song.  I do not remember the exact date.  It was after the 10th day of the 4th moon the year before last.  It was after Yang had finished his office work for the day, and past 6 p.m. I cannot remember the exact date, but it was so long ago that I cannot remember.  Yang Kit-song said he had paid the $65 to Yang.  I have no evidence that Wan Ching-dong paid the money to Yang. I gave him the money and heard no more about it, except that Yang Kit-song said the money had been paid to Yang at his house. I do not know the time of day the money was paid.  I gave it on the 3rd of the 10th moon. I heard three times that I was to be arrested in 1887 in the 12th moon.  I do not remember receiving similar information in ther 4th moon of the same year.
  I was in Shanghai at that time and my house was searched, and my finger (shown) was injured in an iron safe the year before last. I do not know if it was a certain Monday morning that I received information from Yang through Lu Sung-tao that I was to be arrested.  Li Sung-tao said there would be a raid on my house and that Yang had sent him to tell me.  I left the house, and I know the house was searched at 3 or 4 a.m.; my wife told me so.
  Mr. Browett tried hard to get witness to admit that he was in Shanghai in 1888 but the witness denied that he was.
  Mr. Wainwright said he had a certificate signed by the second compradore of the Fatshan, stating that Ho Ah-pao returned to Shanghai in the steamer in January last.
  Witness continued - I paid Wan Ching-dong $5, but I do not know the date; it was during the 4th moon, I did not keep any accounts, as I do not know the characters.  No one keeps accounts for me.  I have not paid money to other than Yang in the Police Force, no one would have dared to ask for money.  I have not paid any money indirectly or directly to anyone in the Police Force but Yang, neither to foreigners nor natives.
  By Mr. Wainwright - The money was generally taken by Li Sung-tao.  Since I returned from Canton, Yang's wife's mother called upon me.  I was not at home at the time.  She saw my wife and said that as both parties (Yang and witness) wore queues they should not go against each other.
  By Mr. Carles - The periodical payments commenced in 1884 and ceased in the 11th moon of 1887.  We went on paying for three years, payment being made from 6 small tables.  Li Sung-tao collected the money and he also paid it.  I paid two amounts because Li Sung-tao had no time to do so - I collected money from the tables.  In the 3rd moon of 1887, I paid the money on the 18th or 19th of the month; that was about the time ordinarily that the money was paid.
  M. Carles - According to the diary kept, the prisoner was not in Shanghai on that day.
  Witness - Yang Kit-sang sent money to Yang, and not Li Sing-tao, because the latter was not there then.  I do not remember when the police made a raid on my house.
  YANG KIT-SANG aid - I have been gambling in Hongkew for some time past.  With regard to getting information from the Police, money has been passed from time to time by Li Sung-tao who was sent by Yang for it, and it was paid afterwards.  I frequently saw Yang and I paid him $65 in the 10th month of '87.  Mopi Apo gave me the money to give to Yang.  I gave it myself.  It was at 8 a.m. and the servant came to the door and I said I wanted to see Yang.  He came out and I said I had money for him. We paid $130 a month, and his lasted three years; Li Sung-tao usually took the money, but on this occasion Mopi-apo said Li Sung-tao had no time.  That is why I took it.  We received information that the police would make a raid.  I know of this having been done twice.  I only took the money to Yang once. The money was paid on the 3rd of the 10th month.  We left off paying then because Wong Wen-chao was arrested, and we did not believe the money had been paid to the Superintendent.  I do not know if any money was paid to the police except that paid to Yang.
  Mr. Browett - I am sure it was on the 3rd day of the 10th month that the money was paid.  I remember it.  After the 10th month no more money was paid.  I do not remember what day of the week it was.  I have never spoken to Yang except with regard to the money.  I know Yang received $130 a month, because the money was collected from the tables, half a dollar a day from each small table, the old table contributing the deficiency.  I belonged to the old table, and so know this.
  By the Court - The old table was kept by partners, some 20 or more men.  When Mopi-apo gave me the money, I was at the old table.  It was in dollars.  He told me to give the money to Yang.  Yang received it and went away.  I got no receipt or card from him.  The date was the 3rd day, there is np doubt about that.  The money was paid, I believe about that date.
  UAN CHING-DONG - I have known Yang many years, he is my own neighbour.  Yang sent for me to go to his house and asked me to go and tell Mopi-apo that he wanted money.  When I went to Mopi-apo he gave me $5 which I took to Yang's house and gave to Yang's wife; she said to me: Why is it that Li Sung-tao has not brought the money? I told her Yang had sent me, I do not remember the date.  I never took money after that.  Yang sent me a message that I was not to bring any more money.  I do not know the reason of it.  I do not know how to gamble.  Yang came to my house last summer but did not speak about money.  Yang afterwards told me that the business in Foochow Road was finished.  He said nothing about foreigners.  Yang told me to tell Mopi-apo when I went for the money that No. 9 (Detective Keeling) was going to make a raid. I do not remember his saying anything about the brothel case in Foochow Rad.  Yang called on me, but I cannot say if it was the 11th day of the 8th moon last year.  Yang never told me to ask Mopi-apo to take a message to Inspector Cameron.  I do not remember Yang telling me on the 24th of the 9th moon that Inspector Cameron promised him that he would let him remain in the force if he said nothing to Capt. McEuen about Mopi-apo.
  Mr. Wainwright - My idea is that the entries in the diaries are made up for the occasion for a purpose.
  Mr. Browett -That is an assertion which I emphatically deny.
  In reply to Mr. Browetet - I knew Ni Kuei-ching; he never sent his cook for me.  I do not remember going to Yang's house in the 9th moon, I was there in the early part of the year.  I saw a man there smoking opium. I know Mopi-apo as an acquaintance, I only saw him at the beginning of the last year.  I saw him at the gambling table and asked him for $5 which he gave me.  I cannot remember the exact date but it was soon after Chinese New Year.  I remember it being paid soon after Chinese New Year.
  SHIN SAN, a native detective said - I arrested Wang Wen-chao on the 5th of the 11th moon '87. I took him to the Central Station with another man.  The next morning Yang asked me if I had a arrant or card for the man's arrest, and who told me to arrest the man.  I also arrested Ni Kuei-ching.  Yang said I did not tell him and Wang. Wang and Yang everybody knows were sworn brothers.  I arrested Ni Kuei-ching in the 3rd moon, and he asked me if Yang knew about it.  Yang sent for me to the house of his second wife and asked me why I had arrested Ni Kuei-ching.
  By Mr. Browett - I have no spoken to Yang abut M. Cameron.  We had not much conversation, he is a translator and I am a detective.  I did not speak in the presence of Yang and others of Mr. Cameron's boy receiving money.  I do not know the boy.  I have not been often to Yang's house.  I went there when he called m, two or here times.  It was common talk that Yang and Wang were bosom friends.  I do not remember visiting Yang's house in August or September last year.  I did not say that Mr. Cameron would not trouble Yang any more.
  By Mr. Carles -I have been nine years in the police force.  I constantly visit teashops.  I have not heard in the teashops that money was given by gamblers to the Police.
  AH SAM, a gambler, said I am out of employ and used to gamble at the small tables.  I know of money being paid by gamblers to the Police, 50 cents a day were paid to one or other of the Chinese to be given to Yang for the Superintendent of Police.  This commenced two years before last in the 5th or 6th moon and was stopped after the arrest of Wang Wen-chao.  We refused to pay them, Li Sung-tao said he got information about Police raids from Yang.  No person's name was mentioned on paying the money, but a word was used to signify that the money was for the Police.
  By Mr. Browett -$90 were collected from four tables and $40 from the old able making $130 a month.  I know as a fact that $130 a month were paid.
   By Mr. Wainewright - I do not know the man who was smoking opium in Yang's house.
  By Mr. Carles - I am a farmer, Apo paid the money at once.  We knew what it was for, as Mopi-apo, Yang and myself had spoken about the matter.  Mopi-apo never sent me to Yang.  We had all met together and decided the matter; Apo did not send me to Yang.
  By Mr. Browett - The meeting took place in a ship four or five years ago.
  Witness then stated - I asked Mopi-apo if he was willing to give Yang $5 and he gave it to me at once.
   HO AH-CHUNG, a gambler, said - I helped to run one of the small gambling tables, a new one; my table contributed towards a monthly payment to the police.  The money was paid because information was given that the police were coming.  At first, we refused to pay.  We paid $15 a month; we paid Li Sung-tao who collected it; it was to be paid to Yang for the Superintendent. I knew Yang by sight.  It was for a little over three years that the money was paid.
  By Mer. Browett - The gambling is still going on, but not at the same place; we have to move away from time to time owing to the Police.  When the money was paid there were not many raids.  Last year they were very active knocking down sheds. I thought the money was for higher authority than Yang in the Police force.  I saw Wang Wen-chao come out of Yang's house.
  CHOY AH-YUNG - The Police did not do so much harm when they made the raids, they broke the things and took them away.  The Police were a little more active after the payments were stopped than before.
  By M. Carles - The gamblers employed men to give the alarm when the police came. There were two look-out men.  We all paid them.
  By Mr. Wainewright - $100 a month was paid for the Superintendent and $30 to Li Sung-tao and Yang.  When we were asked to contribute we were told by Li Sung-tao and another that Yang said the Superintendent wanted the money.  We paid $130 to Li Sung-tao, but I do not know what he did with it.
19th Feb.
  Captain McEuen, in reply to Mr. Browett stated - Yang was Interpreter and Clerk; his duty was to write letters and do as he was told.  I do not remember that he has spoken to me about gambling.  He has told me that gambling was going on in Li Hongkew, but I knew that before.  It depends on the district the raids are in as to whom I should instruct.  I give the order personally sometimes, at others to the inspectors.  There are 7 Inspectors in the force.  They are supposed to keep the orders secret.  It is possible for people to know when raids are about to be made by seeing the men moving about in the station.  The raids in Hongkew or elsewhere were made by two or three men. The fact of two or three men walking about the station might be sufficient evidence that the police were going to make a raid.  Yang attended office on Sundays when he was wanted.  I never informed him that we were going to make a raid except on the occasion when we made one from his house.  I do not remember May 1887, I remember that an attempt was made to arrest Mopi-apo but I do not remember the date.  I received information that Mopi-apo could be found at his house if we wished to arrest him. There was a particular time stated in the information.  It was on a Sunday.  I received the information at 11.30 p.m. on the Sunday.  I at once took steps to arrest him.  I heard that his house was searched about 3 a.m. I instructed Mr. Cameron on that occasion.  He got my orders about 1 a.m. I do not remember that Yang reported to me that a shed was built near his house.  When I went with the Magistrate to Hongkew we did not go to any particular shed.  It was generally known we were going to make a raid when the Magistrate went down, for we found most of the gamblers' things removed.  I did not suspect from that that someone had given information.  The gamblers did not want the things taken by the police, so they removed them.  Somebody may have given them information; I can only suppose that Mr. Yang could have given information from what I know now.  
  You see the raids were usually made on Sundays.  I have been anxious to put down the gamblers and as there was generally more gambling on Sundays, that day was selected, and the Police had less to do on that day.  I sent Yang Kit-song to Canton for Mopi-apo; I sent the man I thought best.  Mopi-apo was brought up at the request of Yang.  Mr. Yang gave me the name of Mopi-api as one of the men he wanted.  He could not get him, but we did. Ah Ching, Cantonese detective, did not report to me that Yang was collecting money for some one in the Police Force.
  By Mr. Wainewright - It is not possible that Yang could obtain information from a native policeman with regard to an intended raid.
  By Mr. Carles - I was 19 years in the navy, and left with the rank of Lieutenant.  I was a Justice of the Peace and Marine Magistrate in Hongkong.  I received anonymous letters against Yang's character.  I reported Yang to the Municipal Council over the Foochow Road Brothel case.  The Settlement is in my care.  Gamblers sheds occupy doubtful positions, and I cannot say whether they are in or out of the Settlement.  I gave Yang the diaries to keep.
  By Mr. Browett - With reference to the anonymous letters, I did not know what to think.  I took steps to find out about them, but did not succeed.
  By Mr. Wainewright - A man named Stone was associated with Yang at the time Mr. Emens have me a warrant to arrest the gamblers.  I do not know if Stone was aware of the warrant being issued.
  By Mr. Browett - I remember a Chinaman coming to me about Mopi-apo. I do not remember what he said more than that he could arrest Mopi-apo.  I told him to tell me where he was, and I would arrest him.
  J.  B. CAMERON - I have been five years in the Shanghai Police Force last month.  During that time, I have made several hundred visits to the gamblers, but the number of successful raids, I am sorry to say, were not so many.  I sometimes took three men with me, sometimes as many as ten, usually they were foreigners with native detectives and Mixed Court runners.  I did not always have the same foreigners.  Plain clothes men were taken as a rule.  The instructions I received were general, but Saturdays and Sundays were the principal days.
  Before making raids, those who went with me did not know where they were going to till they were there.  I think I have seen Yang at the office on Sundays.  I do not know how often.  I could not give a number with any degree of accuracy.  I had no communication with Yang in connection with raids.  I was told my boy was in Yang's office after the petition to the Municipal Council had been received.  Yang told me this, and he said the boy accused him (Yang) of associating his name with the petition.   A Chinaman came to me in connection with the Foochow Road Brothel case.  His name I do not remember, but I know the man.  He is Mr. Wainewright's clerk.
  Mr. Wainewright - Char Guo-kee.
  Mr. Browett further questioning the witness about names of people,
  Mr. Carles said - I do not think the Curt can go on for ever over these questions.
  Mr. Browett - I think, my client wants to know the names of certain people for valid reasons.
  Mr. Carles - Does not he (Yang) know his own friends?
  Witness, continuing - I have kept a record of a number of raids.
   By Mr. Wainewright - I think it was quite possible for Yang to get information of some of the raids.  Yang told me that my boy had abused him for mentioning his name in the petition and sad the boy accused him of being at the bottom of it all. I said it was wrong of the boy to do his.  This is all the conversation we had on the subject.
  Mr. Browett then asked the witness several questions with regard to statements in Yang's diary, on which witness replied that the entries were fictitious.  He said on one occasion he had some conversation about gamblers, a petition having been handed to me, which I gave to the Court.  I simply presented the petition at the order of the Captain Superintendent, I neither bailed nor attempted to bail the gambler out.  Not knowing Chinse, and having none to translate the name, I went to the Mixed Court gaoler and asked him to point out the man whose name appeared on the petition so that I could know who the man was.  Yang said it was a petition from shopkeepers in Hongkew to get the man out.
  By Mr. Carles - The extent of the gambling area is larger at times than at others, and the sheds are scattered about, some 50, some 500 and some 600 yards apart.  There was one shed close to the prisoner's house.  Cat. McEuen suggested that Yang move from those places.
  LI SUNG-TAO - I have not paid Yang $65.  The money was collected, I do not know how.  No money was passed from the gambling tables.  I only kept the accounts. I know Mopi-apo, but not intimately.  He went to my house sometimes.  I knew him, though not intimately, we were friendly; next door neigbours, now we live apart, and there is a creek between us.  I cannot remember being at Yang's house wth Mopi-apo.  I do not remember a conversation about Mopi-apo being advised by Yang to go into the country.  Yang did not give me any information about the intended arrest of Mopi-apo. I could recognize Chang-apo if I saw him. I paid him no money.  I never saw him paid, but I was told Wang Wen-chao had paid him money.  Wang Wen-chao sent a man to collect money.  Mopi-apo was in Shanghai last year, in the early part of it.  I saw him in the Chinese 6th moon.  I saw him when I was going to shroff the dollars.
  The case was adjourned till Thursday at 2 p.m.
Thursday, 21st Feb.


Source: North China Herald, 1 March 1889

Shanghai, 21st Feb., 1889
Before Mr. Tsai, Mixed Court Magistrate, and Mr. Carles, British Assessor.
  In this case, Yang, the late police interpreter, was charged with receiving bribes.
  Mr. R. E. Wainwright appeared to prosecute, and Mr. H. Browett was for the defendant.
  (The following evidence had to be omitted from the record of Friday.)
  The defendant's mother appeared in front of the bench on the opening of the court and informed the Magistrate that the defendant's wife was unable to attend.
 Mr. Carles said they would have to forego her examination.
  Mr. Browett said he had no alternative, but he would tender is client's mother-in-law in evidence.
  Yang's mother-in-law was then examined by Mr. Browett, and stated that she did not know Mopi-apo, nor his wife.  She went to Mopi-apo's house the other night, the 27th of 28th of last month.  She had some conversation with Mopi-apo's wife during which witness told her to tell Mopi-apo to speak the truth when he came into Court.  She did not know what Mopi-apo   was going to do when he came into Court, she did not make the remark that as Mopi-apo and Yang were both queues, they would not go against each other.  Witness went there on her own account.
  Cross-examined by Mr. Wainewright - through Mr. F. F. Ferris - Witness went to the house of Mopi-apo because she thought that proceedings would be taken against him, and she wanted to warm him to tell the truth.
 Li Sung-tao, the prisoner's chief witness, was then called and cross-examined by Mr. Wainewright who said he understood that after the Court rose the last day the witness said that if the magistrate came back he should tell the truth.  He wished the Magistrate to warn the witness to speak the truth now.
  The Magistrate cautioned the witness as requested, and Sung-tao proceeded to address the court with such volubility that the interpreters were unable to follow him, but his speed was checked by the magistrate.
  Mr. Browett's interpreter translated his evidence as follows:-=
  After two or three days he went to Yang's house, Yang having sent his cook for him (witness).  Yang then told witness that Captain McEuen had asked him to make a petition out against Inspector Cameron, and that if witness went to the court and spoke up Mr. Cameron would be dismissed.  Witness said he knew nothing about the matter and that he would not meddle with other people's affairs.  Yang said that if witness would not go to the court, the magistrate would sent a warrant. Witness said that there would be no use in his going to the Court, that whatever was true would come out, and if the Cantonese gamblers accused Yang wrongfully about the petition they would find it out.  Finally witness refused to go to the Court, and Yang again said the Magistrate would issue a warrant for him, to which witness replied that he was going to the country to some relatives and would take the risk of the warrant.
  After his return from the country he went back to his own house, and Lo Sung-ling called at the house, but witness told his wife to say he was out, and to tell Sung-ling to come back again.  Witness then went to French town and taking a sampan crossed over to Pootung where he stayed all night.  Next day he was told that his house had been searched, some papers taken away and his wife put into custody.  Witness then went over to the native city to learn more particulars.
  Mr. Wainewright said there was no use in the witness relating such a long wandering story.  He had said that Yang told him what to say in Court, and he (Mr. Wainewright) asked if this was the story that Yang told him to give.
  The Witness - The story he told in the Court in the first petition case was the story Yang told him.  Before this he had known Mr. Cameron and had seen him but had never spoken to him.  He would not say that he met him at the Rifle Butts because it was dark when witness went there.  One foreigner was there.  Yang, Mopi-apo, and the foreigner were all talking.  Witness did not see any money paid, but he was informed by Mopi-apo that money did pass.  Wong Wen-chao was also there.  Mopi-apo did not tell him what kind of money passed.  Witness went because Mopi-apo and the other man told him to leave them there.  He was told that Yang was there.
  It was at night, the year before last, and about the fourth moon, in Spring.  There was no moon.  He simply led them there, which finished what he was required to do.  Witness said at the hearing of the first case that the money was paid to a foreigner, he did not say it was paid to Mr. Cameron for he could not see who it was.  Yang did not tell him to say that.  But on his way back from the Rifle Butts, Yang told witness that the foreigner was Mr. Cameron from whom he (Yang) had a letter asking him to meet him (Mr. Cameron) at the Rifle Butts.  Witness was told by Yang that he might speak about this matter.  Witness said that they had better be careful about this business as a foreigner was involved, whereupon Yang said if he only spoke up, Mr. Cameron would be dismissed.  In the fourth moon of last year (1888) witness did not go frequently to Yang's house in the evening, but very seldom.  In the fifth moon, witness was not in Shanghai.
  The entry in Yang's diary "dated 27th day of the fourth moon, 1888, Ling Meh's husband called between 10 and 11 at night" might possibly be correct.  As to the entry of the 30th day of the 4th moon "Ling Meh's husband called at my house between 9 and 11," he cannot say if it was true.  But he was there about eight times in all between January and the fourth moon.  The entry of the 18th day 5th moon that Yang met Ling Meh's husband who walked home with him and left at midnight was not true, for witness was not in Shanghai at that date.
  Mr. Carles asked did the witness recollect meeting Nien Kuei Ching, Yang and Su Ah Chong.  The witness said he did, near the Lithographic Works in Hongkew, but that was after his return from the country.
  Witness did not recollect meeting Nien Kuei-ching at Yang's house on the 3rd day of the ninth moon, as mentioned in Yang's diary.  He could not say if the entry that he called in Yang on the 23rd day of the 1th moon was true.  He visited Yang frequently when a certain road was begun in Hongkew.  Witness was interested in the road because he was a sort of land broker.  It was not true that he collected the money from the gamblers and took it to Yang.  It was utterly untrue what all the men had said about his being the medium between Yang and the gamblers. The witness immediately afterwards admitted that on three occasions he took an envelope containing bank notes to Yang.  It was true that witness acted as a shroff to the gamblers.
  The witness was next questioned as to his knowledge that the gamblers paid 50 cents a day for each small able, but he fenced about for a time before he would give a direct answer.  Finally he said he knew that the Cantonese gamblers did subscribe something between them, but he did not know the amount.
  The Magistrate informed the witness that he was not telling the truth and threw in a mild suggestion in the direction of the bamboo suspended outside the Court, which would be put to use if the witness was not more straightforward.  This affected the witness somewhat for he commenced afresh at a rate of speed which caused the interpreters to take a back seat for a time.
  A lively passage at arms ensued between the Magistrate and the witness in which the latter shouted out his story at the top of his voice, his Worship remarking that he did not believe a word he said.
  On being reminded by Mr. Wainewright that he (witness) had said before that he had paid Mr. Cameron's boy some money, witness asserted he never said so, and his Worship intimated that it was the Chinese newspaper report that was at fault.  Witness knew that the gamblers subscribed about $120 to $130 a month.  He did not know where the $90 a month went.  It may have gone to Yang for all he knew.  Yang paid him nothing for coming to the Court.
  By Mr. Browett - The three envelopes which he gave to Yang were addressed in English and consequently witness did not know to whom they were addressed.  He gave them to the prisoner at his house.  He took $10 separately as well as the money in the envelope to Yang.  He could not remember whether this $10 was in notes.  Weng Wen-chao told him to take these envelopes to Yang for Mr. Cameron.  Witness had never seen any money pass to Ah Chu.  He did not know if any money reached any other members of the police force besides Yang.  He did not know what arrangements the Cantonese gamblers made.  He did not know of any private signal given to the gamblers by the police when they were going to make a raid.  Mopi-apo told witness that Cheng Ah-kuang told him that the police were coming when he hurt his finger.  Witness was instructed by Wang Wen-chao about what to put in the accounts. He could not remember what amounts he put down for bribes to the police.
  Re-examined by Mr. Wainewright - The book (produced) were the accounts made up by witness, dated from the 12th moon 12th year to the 4th moon 1887. The entries "Lim Kee $80, Fu Kee $10" witness put down at Wang's direction.  Witness did not pay the money himself.
  By Mr. Carles - On the three occasions witness took money in envelopes to Yang's house, the envelopes were foreign, and addressed in English, he did not know by whom.  Wang had a friend who could write English.  Witness could not recollect the dates on which he took these envelopes to Yang.  It was about 3 years ago.
  Mr. Wainewright said - That Captain McEuen had made enquiries about a number of the persons mentioned by Yang in his diary, and his intimates, and they were found to be nearly all loafers, gamblers, brothel keepers and other bad characters.
Shanghai, 25th February.
.  .  .  The hearing of the charge against Yang, the late police interpreter was resumed his morning.  .  .  .  
  In opening the case, Mr. Browett asked if Captain McEuen had found the paper referred to by Yang with reference to the $30 Yang said he handed to him.
  Captain McEuen - Yes, the paper has been found and brought to the court.  The reason I denied the other day having received $30 from the gamblers was because I thought Yang sad I had accepted the money as a bribe.  The money was received and it was entered by me in the Detective Reward Bok produced) at the time.  I thought no more of the matter.
  The examination of Yang was then continued.
  Yang - I joined the police in 1884.  I was on good terms with Mr. Cameron.  I was afterwards transferred to the Central Station, because there was no competent interpreter at the Central.  I remember the time when Detective Mack charged Inspector Cameron with using public servants for his private purposes.  At that time, Mr. Cameron asked me to talk to the coolies so that they would take his part, if anything came of it.  I handed Mr. Cameron three envelopes containing money.  The money was paid to Mr. Cameron before 1887.  He often came to my house, sometimes as he passed by, sometimes after he came back from making raids on gamblers, and had refreshments, but there was not any conversation about the gamblers.  In 1885 Inspector Fleming came to my home and asked me to show him round the gambling places.  I knew the gambling places because I passed them twice a day.  I live close to the gamblers because my property has been handed down to me from my father.  I remember in May 1887 receiving a letter from Mr. Cameron's boy, written in English, referring to receiving bribes.  It was handed to Mr. Cameron.
  By Mr. Wainewright - The reason the letter was written to me was because the bribes formerly went through the boy; after he was away, they came to me and now that he was back he wanted the money to go through him again.  I handed the letter to Inspector Cameron in his office, but did not say anything to him because Capt. McEuen was in the office.  The first letter containing money was handed to Mr. Cameron close to the end of the Chinese old year, but I cannot remember the exact date.
  By Mr. Carles - It was at the end of the Chinese year.
  By Mr. Wainewright - I paid the second instalment about half a month after the first. They gave me as a reason for handing me the second letter that Mr. Cameron's boy was away.  The third one was given about a month and a half after the first.  The instigator of the meeting at the Rifle Butts was myself.
  Yang continued - I asked Mr. Cameron for a receipt for the money.  To satisfy the gamblers, I proposed that he should either see some of them, or give them a receipt.  The proposal was made about one month before the meeting took place.  I asked him if he would appoint some day to see these gamblers in order to satisfy them that the money had been paid him by Ah=Chu.  I remember that the conversation took place in Mr. Cameron's house.  He did not give me any definite answer, but said "I'll see." I next heard of the matter on the 3rd May.  I was told by Ah-chu.  He asked me to go to the French Concession.  I was good friends with Mr. Cameron after the meeting at the Rifle Butts; I remember calling upon him at his house several times after.  Mr. Cameron made promises to me.  He said I must not say anything, but he would do his best to get my pay increased; when he made the promise I believed he would be able to fulfil it, because I knew that whatever he asked the Captain Superintendent for, he would get it.  My pay was increased in January 1888.  My pay before that was Tls. 40, then it was increased Tls. 10.  I continued friendly with Mr. Cameron.  In March or April of the same year I went into the country, and when I came back, I was told by detective Lo A-lok that Mopi-apo and the other gambles were invited to an eating house.  The gamblers were treated in the hall, while the Police officers dined in a corner room.  I reported this to Captain McEuen, because I knew Mopi-apo was wanted by the city authorities, Mr. Emens and the Mixed Court magistrate.  The warrants were in the possession of Mr. Cameron.  All the police officers who attended the dinner were taken to the Superintendent's office, and their evidence taken down.  The last person was A-can.  He was very much excited and was swearing at me; Yang A-ping was dismissed, and Mr. Cameron's expressions to me were very strong.
  The next occasion on which I incurred M. Cameron's displeasure was in July or August. One morning I was called to Captain McEuen's office to interpret something about an informer who said he could arrest Mopi-apo.  I did not then know who sent the informer, but he was delivered into the custody of Dong Ching because the informer did not attend at the Hongkew Station on the previous day.  I know he was detained till 4 o'clock that afternoon.  I do not know what he was detained for, I was told because he wanted to squeeze Mopi-apo.
  In the afternoon a letter came, and two men came from Mr. Emens.  On leaving the office they said "Captain Mceuen is blind." "Black clouds cover up the sun" (Captain McEuen) I thought that they might be using the expression against myself.  It was generally known who was meant by the "black clouds," they meant Mr. Cameron.  They said it must be somebody with influence who had detained the informer.  If there were half a million people in Hongkew, nine tenths would say Mr. Cameron received bribes. At the time of the Foochow Road brothel affair, I did not think Mr. Cameron was quite pleased with me.  He said in reference to the brothel case "Oh, I'll be all right." I told him the story of the case, and he said he would ask Captain McEuen to give me an opportunity to resign.  He afterwards said Captain McEuen wanted Tls. 500 as security.  I said it was impossible for me to find this sum.  I saw Wang ching-dong about the brothel affair, it was at the end of the 9th moon.  He was to meet me on a Saturday evening, but he did not come till 1.30 p.m. on Sunday. I had a friend with me then, and I saw Wang Ching-ding in the waiting room.  I told him what had occurred in the Foochow Road case and said Mr. Cameron had made a mistake regarding the informer.  I said Mr. McEuen was much mistaken in thinking I was the informer.  I said we knew each other well, and that if Mr. Cameron did not treat me well, I would expose the whole thing.  Wang Ching-dong advised me not to do it.  What I referred to was with regard to receiving bribes.  Wang said he would get Mopi-apo to see Mr. Cameron on my behalf, and tell him what I said, and ask him not to be so hard on me about the Foochow Road case.  Wang left me at 2 p.m., promising to see Mopi-apo that evening.  He did so, and told me Mopi went to see Mr. Cameron on the subject.  Mopi-apo frequently went to Mr. Cameron's house after the 3rd May and this is known to several members of the Police Force, but they dare not come forward and say a word. Ng Shang and Yuen know about it.  Ng Shang said it was against his interest to come forward and speak about the matter.
  I concluded that Apo had considerable influence and he advised Mr. Cameron.  Mopi-apo said he did not think I would "go for" Mr. Cameron.  Wan said I had a "broad mouth," and talked too much about Mr. Cameron in tea shops and opium shops which Mr. Cameron did not like.  I was in the habit of saying "yes" and "it is true" to people who asked me if Mr. Cameron took bribes.  A-zung, a detective, does not get any bribes from the Cantonese; he does not often go to Hongkew.  The Louza Station interpreter came to me in September, and asked me if I knew there was a big Cantonese gambling establishment in the Settlement in an alley-way between Nanking and Kiukiang Roads.  This place he said was known to a detective named Ko Ah-lo who had reported the matter to Inspector Fleming and had written a letter to Mr. Cameron on the subject and given it to Ko Ah-lok to deliver.  Nothing was done in this matter, no raid was made and nothing said about it. The gambling had been going on in the Wuhu Road till it was transferred to the alley-way.
  On Tuesday, 18th September, Mr. Cameron told me it was no use my sending men to him any more, as my case had gone to Mr. Robinson.  He told me this in the captain's office.  I was taken before the Watch Committee and it was decided that I should give Tls. 500 security for my good behaviour.  Several days before the meeting of the Watch Committee I heard from Wan Ching-dong that Mopi-apo had told him what the decision on my case was to be.   In consequence of this I did not think it right to remain employed by the council, by whom I was nominally employed while I had to obey Mopi-apo the well-known gambler of Hongkew.
  Mr. Cameron could have told me privately and not done it through a gambler.  I felt bad over this, but did not then think of doing anything against Mr. Cameron.  I do not know Kow Ah-san and Ho Ah-ching (Cantonese gamblers). I have frequently told Captain McEuen that the only way to stop the suspicion of bribes in the Police was to stop the gambling.  After the row in Captain McEuen's office between Achu and myself, that is after the party in the eaying house, I did not report to Captain McEuen, because I knew Mr. Cameron was interested.  I did not think there was any use in my speaking any more about the matter.  Captain McEuen never informed me that raids were to be made, except on the occasion I have referred to, before when he asked me to show him the place.  Achu told me he gave information to the gamblers.  It was arranged that when Mr. Cameron was to make a raid, he put on a helmet, or towel or something on top of the portico of the house.  Achu told me this.  Every entry in my diary is true. With regard to the anonymous letters, I was told by Mr. Cameron that they had been received, and that Captain McEuen would shew them to me.  I suspected Lang Ah-tuk wrote some of them, also Ching Kwang.  The letters were no true.  When the raids were made the anonymous letters cam often; none came after 3rd May 1887.
  At this stage of the proceedings the Court adjourned till 2.30 p.m.
  On the Court reassembling,
  Yang continued, and explained certain matters which he said had been wrongly reported in the Courier, of his evidence on a previous occasion.  A plan of the Rifle Butts was shewn him, and he pointed out on it the place where he sad he meeting between himself, the gamblers and Mr. Cameron took place, and where he stated Mr. Cameron had received the money which was wrapped up in Chinese paper.
  By Mr. Wainewright - I first heard of bribes given to natives about two months after joining the Force.  I was told by Inspector Mack.  I first heard from a man in Mr. Johnston's office that Mr. Cameron had received them.  I do not remember when this was, but Captain McEuen would know, because Mr. Johnston spoke to him about it.  He did not tell me, but I heard what was said, because I was called in to interpret what he Chinaman said.  Mr. Cameron's name was mentioned.  He said he had heard of the bribes being received.  The first conversation I had with A-chu was in 1887.  A-chu commenced telling me when he came back from Canton.  When I received those three envelopes at intervals of a month, and gave them to Mr. Cameron, his boy was away in Canton, at least when I received the first two; but I do not know if he was away when I got the third.  It was after the Chinese New Year that I received the third.  
  When the first envelope was given me, I was told it was from Mr. Cameron's boy in Canton.  Mr. Cameron told me he expected something from his boy, I did not take the letter till Mr. Cameron told me this.  There was no post mark on the envelopes, they were plain.  I was told I should only be wanted for a short time to receive the letters.  On the third time, I was told I could take them if I liked, because Detective Mack was now out of the force.  All the natives were afraid of Mr. Mack.  I do not know if A-chu was back from Canton when I received the third envelope.  Before the 3rd May, I had had a conversation with A-Chu about the bribes, some five or six days previously.  I also recollect receiving a note from Achu which I handed to Mr. Cameron.  This was when he threatened me. The gamblers did not ask me for a receipt for the money.  A-chu asked me to meet him at an eating house on the French Concession in the Rue du Consulat.  I do not remember on which side of the road this place was.  We stayed there till 7.30 p. m. I went between 3 and 4 p.m. I found A-chu and Mopi-apio there, and there was nobody else present.  I do not know whether I went to an opium shop in the meantime.  I arrived at the end of North Honan Road about 8 p.m. I did not meet Mr. Cameron at once.  It was about 15 minutes later.  The meeting only lasted some 4 or 5 minutes.  I sat on the raised path.  I do not remember what kind of night it was, we could see each other at a short distance off.   When I arrived Li Sung-pao was near enough to hear what Mopi-apo said.
  Mr. Wainewright - Have you not a relative named Wong?
  Yang - No.
  (Question repeated),
  Yang - Yes, though not direct to me. He was not one of the Wangs present.  When I got home it must have been after 9 o'clock, and I found Mr. Jones in the house.  Mr. Cameron, after the meeting went into the Rifle Butts, but before doing so, called for the planks over the ditch to be put down.  A-chu did not go to the Rifle Butts.  I went because I had suggested to Mr. Cameron that he should go.  I never gave any money to Inspector Charters, I only heard Mr. Cameron say he had received some.  I have not seen A-chu write English.  I know he could write English.  I received a letter from Mr. Cameron's boy in May, it was written on half a sheet of foolscap and was in a long envelope. I mentioned the matter to Mr. Cameron.  I gave him the first envelope at the end of the 11th and 12th moon.  Twice I gave him letters before the Chinese holidays.  I called upon Mr. Cameron at his house and talked to him and applied to him in 1887 to recommend me for an increase of pay.  I and another person were told the application was made too late, owing to the Budget having been made up.  In 1888 three of us got an increase.
  I heard from Wan Ching-dong that I had to give security, not that the Watch Committee had decided what was to be done in my case.  A-chu told me of the signaling from Mr. Cameron's premises some time after the meeting at the Rifle Butts.  He said private arrangements had been made with the gamblers how to act during his absence.  The gamblers fastened a lantern on bamboos to show Mr. Cameron that they were those who had paid him.  Detective Jones remained at my house on the night after my return from the Rifle Butts about 15 minutes.  He left about 10 o'clock.
  By Mr. Carles - I knew the time on that night because I have a watch and a clock.
  By Mr. Wainewright - I afterwards discovered that the reason of Mr. Jones' visit was in connection with a kerosene oil Court case.  Mr. Jones did not previously inform me of his intended visit.  I have a wife and family.
  Mr. Waimewright - And a second wife? But being a Christian, are you not a Christian, at least a professing one? - you cannot have two wives - a second woman?
  Yang - Yes.
  By Mr. Carles - When dining with A-chu we speak in the Shanghai dialect.  Mopi-apo spoke the Shanghai dialect, we would understand each other.  At the Rifle Butts the conversation was first in English, then the others spoke though me. The envelopes were closed when they were given to me.  I think one was opened in my presence.   I am certain of it.  It was opened in Mr. Cameron's office.  The entrance to his house is in Hunan Road.  The families of the bailed-out gamblers frequented the house and could be seen by the Police going in.
  Mr. Wainewright then asked Yang if a number of persons whom he described as gamblers, loafers, and men who had been cangued and whose names appeared in Yang's diary were his intimate friends.
  Yang replied that some were, and that others were not.  In reply to Mr. Carles, he said he was not intimate with all of them.
  Mr. Wainewright - I only go by what I find mentioned in the diary, you dined with them and visited them.
  Mr. Wainewright said he wished to call rebutting evidence, and upon Detective Jones and A-chu being called they gave an emphatic denial to every statement Yang had made concerning them. Jones said that it was true that he had been to Yang's house on the night of the alleged Rifle Butts meeting, but not at the time Yang said he was there. A-chu admitted having an altercation with Yang, but that was all that was true in Yang's evidence as regards himself.
  The Court then adjourned, it then being 5.15 p.m., till Wednesday at 2 p.m.
Shanghai, 27th February.
  The hearing of the charge against Yang, the late police interpreter, was resumed this afternoon.
  Yang appeared in Court evidently sick, his face was Sallow and somewhat swollen, and he had a couple of Chinese plasters on his temples.
  Mr. Browett asked the magistrate if Yang might be allowed to sit down.  This being granted, the first witness called was
  Yang Ah-ping.  He said - In 1887 I was in the Municipal Police Force as a detective.  I know Mr. Jones.  I went to Yang's house once on 3rd May, 1887, I went with No. 30 (Jones) about some kerosene oil.  It was about 7. 45 p.m.  It was good weather, not very dark, I did no notice if there was any moon.  Yang was at home when we got to his house.  Somebody else opened the door, but Yang lighted us in.  When we left, it was more than 8 o'clock; it was before 9. We sat down and talked about the kerosene oil, we looked at a gun, No. 30 saw it, but I do not know if he broke it.  After we left Yang's house, I went with Mr. Jones to search pawnshops along Broadway, Miller Road and Tiendong Road till about 10 o'clock when the shops closed.  I am not in the Police Force now.  I produce a book containing a record of my proceedings on that and other nights.
  Mr. Browett referring to the book, waned to know if certain marks in the book had not been rubbed out.
  Witness said No., but that the blurred appearance was owing to his having handled it.  Continuing, he said - I was dismissed from the Police Force through some people playing a trick on me.  My son got married and some people said I had invited gamblers to the feast.  Mopi-apo was not there. I was dismissed because it was said I invited gamblers, so I am sure I have made no mistake in saying that it was about 9 o'clock when I left Yang's house, because I visited so many pawn shops before thy closed. The last pawnshop visited was in Tiendong Road next door to a rice shop, about a quarter or ten minutes to ten.  We visited about 7 shops, and stayed a few minutes at each shop, at the most five minutes.  At the wedding party Ah Chung was there, a Sergeant, a constable and some others.
  By M. Carles - When we went to Yang's house,. We asked him about the kerosene oil, as he had relations or friends who knew something about it.  This man came while we were there, as he was sent for.
  J. B. Cameron - There is not the slightest truth in Yang's statement about the meeting at the Rifle Butts.  I was never there after dark on any occasion.  On 1st April, 1888, I received a letter through the L.P.O. containing $30 in $5 notes.  The letter asked me not to interfere with gamblers and that another $30 would be sent me later on.  A similar letter was enclosed for Inspector Charters.  We handed these and the notes to the Captain-Superintendent.
  Yang Ah-ping was in the force before Yang joined.  He was the only one left of the old detectives.  As a rule he went round with the foreign detective to the pawn shops.  I do not think there was much love lost between the detective and Yang; Yang, I think, was afraid of him.  My boy has been in my employ since February 1872, except during ten months when I was in England. I believe him to be a very honest boy though by no means a smart one. He has not any money as far as my impression goes.  When he last went on leave, I had to lend him money.  I have no knowledge of his having any friends in Hongkew or elsewhere.  He never wrote me a letter.  He has been twice away on leave since I have been in Shanghai.  He went on leave the first time the latter end of November or beginning of December 1885.  I can fix the date.  He returned on 3rd March 1886.  His second absence was in November last year.  He was in Shanghai between these dates, in my employ.  If he had to come to my office, he would have to pass through Yang's office. It was very seldom that he came.
  I had no such conversation with Yang as that recorded in his diary on date 10th November, 1888.  Yang was not so often in my house.  I do not think he was there half a dozen times before last September.  I saw Stone in Yang's house in July 1887.  He appeared to live there.  Mr. Emns was there too.  Witness admitted that he had visited Yang's house and had refreshments.  He usually was accompanied by somebody else.  Yang never handed me a letter containing money as a bribe.  I have received special duty money from him which came during my absence from the office.  Yang asked me to look at the petition of the three clerks for more pay, before it was sent in.  I did nothing to get Yang an increase of pay.  
  The first time I ever saw Mopi-apo was last month, and then when I did see him, he did not answer the description given me of him.  We went to a gambling house in the alleyway with Inspector Fleming, Jones and others, but we found no gambling going on.  I led a party to a second house.  A-zung gave this information, and 16 or 19 men were brought to his Court and punished.  Families of gamblers have been to the office to see Captain McEuen. I believe Mr. Yang and two others, Li Sung-tao and Wan Wen-chao, received bribes.  So far as the charge against myself is concerned it is false.  I left on leave on 5th March, 1887, and came back on 4th April.  So I was absent at the date Yang stated as about the date he handed me the first letter.
  By Mr. Browett - In July, 1887, Stone apparently lived at Yang's house from the way he acted.  A-ping was rather a smart fellow and knew too much for Yang.  I was told they were not on friendly terms.  Witness explained how it was he was so sure of the time that his boy went away, and also of the date of his return.
  Continuing, he said - I believe the gamblers paid the money to Yang under the idea that it was going to the Police.
  To Mr. Wainewright - Yang has interviewed me since his case came up.  He called at the office to see Captain McEuen, but as he was out, he came to me and asked my advice.  I told him to go to his legal adviser as I would have nothing to do with him after what he had done.  He commenced crying and said that he was innocent and that if the case went against him and he was sent to the station for punishment, he would commit suicide either by taking opium or by shooting himself.
  Ng Hing-shang - To my knowledge, no gamblers went to Mr. Cameron's house.  I stayed in his house in 1885.  I should have seen them if they had done so. After the petition case, Yang tried to make me believe that Mr. Cameron received bribes.  I did not tell Yang it was against my interest to tell the truth.
  By Mr. Browett - Mr. Cameron's boy was somewhat excited when he came into the office.  I did not quite understand him, as he spoke in Mandarin, Cantonese, and Shanghai dialect and what I did make out was that he would go up to the Mixed Court with Yang and have the matter out.  Witness denied the statements Yang made about him.
  Yuen, a writer in the Police Force, also gave similar evidence and made similar denials.
  Yang - One of the Wangs is dead; the other one is "Fat" Wang, that is the only name I know him by.
  "Fat" Wang was then called by the Police, but when he faced Yang, the latter said he did not know him; much to the surprise of the witness. Yang stated that this was the man who was present at the Rifle Butts, and described him as the Wang who had been imprisoned for gambling.  Yang now made the excuse that as his eyesight was bad, he could no distinguish the people whom he met at the Rifle Butts.
  Fat Wang said he was not a gambler and that he was not present at the meeting and told the Magistrate that he had been punished by mistake.  This made the Magistrate angry and he told Wang that if he had made a mistake the Taotai would punish him the Magistrate, but if he had not, he, the Magistrate, would punish Wang again.  Wang said that he was at Hankow at the date of the Rifle Butts meeting, and denied that he had ever been to the Rifle Butts, or that he knew Mr. Cameron.
  Mopi-apo, recalled by the Magistrate, said that "Fat" Wang was a gambler.
  Some other gamblers were recalled, and in answer to the Magistrate said hey came to give evidence to have revenge upon Yang, and to clear Mr. Cameron.  They were sure Yang had pocketed the money himself, and they had paid the money to him because they thought he had power with Captain McEuen.  Now that he (Yang) was "out," they knew he had no power.
  The Magistrate remarked that it was evident that the gamblers would never have sent in the petition had it not been for the fact of Yang instigating them, for they were emboldened to write, through him, especially as they got possession of the three pieces of paper on which Yang wrote.
  The proceedings were adjourned at 5.45 p.m. till 2 p.m. on Thursday.
  28th February.
   On the resumption of the case this afternoon, Mr. Browett summed up on behalf of the prisoner, and was followed by Mr. Wainwright on behalf of the prosecution.  This having been duly interpreted, the Magistrate and Mr. Carles retired, and on returning, the Magistrate delivered judgment sentencing Yang to eighteen months' imprisonment in the Mixed Court, the sentence not to take effect, however, until the prisoner's purchased literary rank had been taken from hm.

Source: North China Herald, 8 March 1889

  The judgment given by the Magistrate of the Mixed Court in which Yang Shao-ting was charged by the Municipal Council with the instigation of a malicious petition, and with the acceptance of bribes, was imperfectly translated by the interpreter, and Mr. W. R. Carles, the British Assessor, thought it therefor desirable to ask the Magistrate to furnish him with a written copy of the judgment which was done; and he has kindly handed us for publication the following translation of it -
  Yang shao-ting, or Yang Hsi-hung as interpreter in the Municipal Council and a chien sheng must be aware that both the acceptance of fees from gamblers, and also the instigation of suits in law courts are offences against the law.
  The hearing of the present case with an assessor has extended over several sittings.  In the evidence given by Yang, it has been admitted that he received money ($30) on three occasions from the gambling tables, while there has been no proof of receipt of fees by Chief Inspector Cameron, and as regards Detective Jones and Detective Liu A-hsiang no evidence has been given which affects them.
  It is not disputed that Liu Sung-lin is the nominal accuser in the petition, and that the petition was presented after consultation with Yen Keui-ching, but in the petition presented by Liu Sung-lin in the Court, and in the Taotai's yamen, no mention is made either of Chief Inspector Cameron or of the foreign and native detectives, and the introduction of their names on this occasion was evidently not on his suggestion.  To trace this to its source Liu Song-lin and Yen Kuei-ching in instituting the case without good grounds were induced to do so by three rough memoranda supplied by Yang Shao-ting.  This is beyond question.  The blame of this must rest on him alone
  Liu Sung-tao, although he had been on intimate terms of friendship with Yang, was unwilling to thrust himself forward as a witness, and in consequence he ran away to Pootung, and it was not until after a foreign detective had been to his house and seized two books of accounts, and his wife had been brought before this court, that he was arrested by a runner.  Irrespective of whether his evidence favoured one party or not, his case is similar to that of Liu Sung-lin and Yen Kuei-ching and need not be dealt with.   
  The evidence given by Mopi-apo and other gamblers though considerable is hard to credit.
  Yang Shao-ting's illegal acceptance of bribes from the gamblers is admitted by himself; instigation of accusations is proven beyond question.  It is my duty therefore to report the matter and ask that he be deprived of the rank as a chien sheng, and that he be kept in prison for 18 months, as a punishment to himself, and a warning to others.
  Mopi-apo and the other gamblers who have kept tables in Hongkew will be leniently dealt with, and by-gones be treated as by-gones, but they will be required to give bonds that they will reform. They will not be permitted to continue keeping gambling tables, and any offence against this prohibition being brought to the knowledge of this court, will be dealt with without mercy.

Published by Centre for Comparative Law, History and Governance at Macquarie Law School